Từ Điển Thuật Ngữ Phật Học Hán Ngữ
saptādhikaraṇa-śamatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules are : 現前毘尼 saṃmukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law; 憶念毘尼 smṛti-vinaya, witness or proof; 不痴毘尼 amūḍha-vinaya, irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; 自言毘尼 tatsvabhavaiṣīya-vinaya, voluntary confession; 多語毘尼 pratijñākāraka-vinaya, decision by majority vote; 罪處所毘尼 yadbhūyasikīya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the 白四 or jñapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; 草覆地毘尼 tṛṇastāraka-vinaya. , i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute.