Từ Điển Thuật Ngữ Phật Học Hán Ngữ
The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day.
The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead.
Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the deceased is in the antarābhava or intermediate state, known as 中有 and 中陰; at the end of forty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By observing the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attaining to a happy destiny.
also 七士夫趣; v. 七賢七聖.
The seven unavoidables— rebirth, old age, sickness, death, punishment (for sin), happiness (for goodness), consequences (cause and effect 因緣).
The seven appurtenances of a monk— the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fly-brush), stool (niṣīdana), paper, and material for washing.
sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipaśyin 毘婆尸, Śikhin 尸棄, Viśvabhū 毘舍婆, Krakucchanda 拘樓孫, Kanakamuni 倶那含牟尼 or 拘那含, Kāśyapa 迦葉, and Śākyamuni 釋迦. The last four are said to be of the present kalpa.
The seven healing Buddhas, also 七躬醫王, of whom there are two descriptions, one representing them as at various places in the eastern regions of space; another gives five in the east and two in the south.
The seven messengers, agents, or kleśas—desire 欲愛; anger, or hate 瞋恚; attachment, or clinging 有愛; pride or arrogance 慢; ignorance, or unenlightenment 無明; false views 見; and doubt 疑.
Saptakotibuddha-mātṛ. The fabulous mother of seven koṭīs of Buddhas; i.e. Marīci 摩利支; also 準提 Cundī, or Cundā; or 準提觀音 Cundī-Guanyin, q.v., who is represented as of whitish color, with eighteen hands and three eyes.
A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: 咒願師 invoker; 導師 leader; 唄師 intoner, or leader of the chanting; 散花師 flower-scatterer; 梵音師 master of sacred DICT_ENTRY_WORDs, or Sanskrit; 錫杖師 shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; 堂達 distributor of missals, etc. Another division is 講師 expounder; 讀師 reader; 咒願師; 三禮師 director of the three ceremonies; 唄師; 散花師; and 堂達.
An assembly of a monasterial fraternity.
A ‘western″ term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven monks.
The practice of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分, and the 八正道 eight marga or noble paths.
idem 七方便 .
The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha; v. also 七種無上; they are his body, or person, his universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance.
The ‘Diamond world’ maṇḍala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy-three honoured ones.
The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of Tai Shan, the god of the five roads, and 大吉祥天 Mahāśrī .
Brahma obtained seventy-two DICT_ENTRY_WORDs with which to save the world, but failing he swallowed seventy, leaving one at each side of his mouth 阿 and 漚 , i.e. 無 and 有 things are, things are not, being and non-being.
The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra.
The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharmakośa-bhāsya, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. 五根, 五境, 無表色. (1) Material 色法 rūpāṇi, 11 . (2) Mind 心法 cittam, 1. (3) Mental qualities 心所有法 citta-saṃprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 46. (4) Non-mental 心不相應行法 cittaviprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin divisions (v. Keith, B. I. , p. 201 ). (5) In addition there are three unconditioned or non-phenomenal elements 無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160) .
The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha’s teaching good in its 時 timing or seasonableness, 義 meaning, 語 expression, 濁法 uniqueness, 具足 completeness, 淸淨調柔 pure adaptability, and 凡行 its sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups.
The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra.
The seven defilements―desire 欲, false views 見, doubt 疑, pride 慢, arrogance 憍 torpor 隨眠, and 慳 stinginess; cf. 七使.
Ānanda’s seven dreams, which are explained in the 七夢經.
Earth , water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception 地, 水, 火, 風, 空, 見, 証識; cf. 大, 五大and 六境; 見大 and 六根; 識大 and 六識.
seven aspects of the bhūta-tathatā , v. 如眞 One list is 流轉如眞 實相如眞, 唯識如眞, 安立如眞, 邪行如眞, 淸淨如眞, 正行如眞. From the 唯識論 8.
sapta-tathāgatāḥ. The seven tathāgatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar (七如來寶塔) in some Buddhist temples. One list 阿彌陀, 甘露飯王, 觀音, 毘耶娑, 色妙身, 羅担納担羅耶and 寶勝. Another list gives Amitābha, Kan-lu-wang, 離怖畏, 廣博身, Miaoseshen, Baosheng (Ratnasaṃbhava) 多寶 (Prabhūtaratna).
The seven sisters. See 七摩怛里.
The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyeka-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the 藏, 通 and 別教.
The seven Japanese sects of 律 Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon, and 禪Zen.
sapta ratna 薩不荅羅的捺 The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are varying descriptions, e.g. 金 suvarna, gold; 銀rūpya, silver; 鐂璃 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli; 玻瓈sphaṭika, crystal; 硨磲 musāragalva, agate; 赤珠 rohita-mukta, rubies or red pearls; 瑪瑙 aśmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal (cakravartin) treasures―the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of women; and loyal generals.
The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things―a part of the “Pure-land”, or Paradise.
The seven atoms composing an aṇu 阿耨; 阿拏, 阿菟色. Eitel’s definition is seven atoms of dust, but the definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an “atom” , and according to the Sarvāstivāda it is the smallest visible particle. It is also a division of a yojana.
The seven realms of vijñāna, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, to which is added thought, 意 根 q.v.
The seven emotions : pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire.
The seven pretensions or arrogances 慢 asserting superiority over inferiors and equality with equals, 過慢 superiority over equals and equality with superiors, 慢過慢 superiority over manifest superiors, 我慢 egotism or overweening pride, 增上慢 vaunting assertion of possessing the Truth, 卑慢 vaunting one’s inferiority (or false humility), and 邪慢 vaunting lack of virtue for virtue.
saptamātṛ. The seven divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal deities; they are associated with the worship of the god Śiva, and attend on his son Skanda or Kārttikeya, to whom at first only seven Mātṛs were assigned, but in the later mythology an innumerable number, who are sometimes represented as having displaced the original divine mothers M.W. Their names are given as (1) Cāmuṇḍā 遮文茶 or 左問拏 (2) Gaurī嬌吠哩; (3) Vaiṣṇavī 吠瑟拏微 (4) Kaumārī 嬌麼哩; (5) Indrāṇī, Aindrī, or Māhendrī 燕捺利 or 印捺哩; (6) Raudrī 勞捺哩; and (7) Vārāhī 末羅呬弭; cf. 七母天.
The seven (spreading) branches—three sins of the body and four of speech, 身三 killing, robbing, adultery; 口四 lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). These are the first seven of the ten evils 十惡.
A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical DICT_ENTRY_WORDs are required. It is explained in the 七支念誦隨行法 part of the Vairocana Sutra.
The karma resulting from the above seven sins.
(七方便位) (1) The seven “expedient” or temporary attainments or positions of Hīnayāna, superseded in Mahayana by the 七賢 (位) or 七加行 (位) all preparatory to the 七聖 (位) (2) The seven vehicles, i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of śrāvakas, of pratyekabuddhas’ and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings 藏, 通 and 別. (3) Also, 藏教之聲縁二人, 通教之聲縁菩三人, 別教and 圓教之二菩薩; (2) and (3) are Tiantai groups.
Ursa major; Worshipped in Japan as 妙見菩薩 Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects this world.
Siddham, idem. 悉曇.
The seven brilliant ones — the sun and moon, together with the five planets which are connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in the sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following list shows their names in Chinese and Sanskrit: Sun 日, 太陽; aditya 阿彌底耶
Moon月, 太陰; soma 蘇摩
Mars火星, 勢惑勞; aṅgāraka 盎哦囉迦
Mercury水星, 辰星; budha 部陀
Jupiter木星, 歳星; bṛhaspati 勿哩訶娑跛底
Venus金星, 太白; śukra 戌羯羅
Saturn土星, 鎭星; śanaiścara 賖乃以室折羅
The seven perfections, see唯識論, 9. 安住最勝 Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature. 依止最勝 perfect reliance on, or holding fast to the great bodhi (awakened mind). 意果最勝 perfect resultant aim in-pity for all 事業最勝 Perfect in constant performance. 巧便最勝 Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). 廻向最勝 Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. 滿淨最勝 Perfect purity and peace.
七生 The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any 欲界 desire-world. Also (1) in the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma 業, and (7) in the intermediate stage.
The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy―almsgiving to visitors, to travelers’ to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves to monasteries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants.
(衣 or 袈裟 ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Uttara-sanga, v. 鬱.
A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken.
The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters 七姉妹; v. 七摩怛里.
The seven vinaya, v. 七滅諍法.
Seven forms of punishment for monks. v. 七羯磨.
seven (unavoidable) things, v. 七不避.
seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : 信 faith, 進 zeal, 戒 moral restraint, 漸愧 shame, 聞 obedient hearing (of the Law), 捨 abnegation, and 定慧 wisdom arising from meditation.
saptādhikaraṇa-śamatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules are : 現前毘尼 saṃmukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law; 憶念毘尼 smṛti-vinaya, witness or proof; 不痴毘尼 amūḍha-vinaya, irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; 自言毘尼 tatsvabhavaiṣīya-vinaya, voluntary confession; 多語毘尼 pratijñākāraka-vinaya, decision by majority vote; 罪處所毘尼 yadbhūyasikīya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the 白四 or jñapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; 草覆地毘尼 tṛṇastāraka-vinaya. , i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute.
v. 七難 prajñā.
same as 七有.
The 700 disciples who met the second synod at Vaiśālī; also 七百結集.
The seven knowings – to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals.
(1) The seven founders of the 華嚴 Huayan School, whose names are given as 馬鳴 Aśvaghoṣa, 龍樹 Nāgārjuna 杜順 (i.e. 法順) , Zhiyan 智儼, Fazang 法藏, Chengguan 澄觀 and Zongmi 宗密; (2) the seven founders of the 禪Chan School, i.e. 達磨 or 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, Huike 慧可, Sengcan 僧璨, Daoxin 道信, Hongren 弘忍, Huineng 慧能 and Heze 荷澤 (or Shenhui 神曾); (3) The seven founders of the 淨土 Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, 世親 Vasubandhu, Tanluan 曇鸞, Daochuo 道綽, Shandao 善導, Yuanxin 源信 and Yuankong 源空 (or Faran 法然), whose teaching is contained in the Qizushengjiao 七祖聖教.
seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, the womb, the prenatal blood of the mother, birth, one’s own flesh, one’s own putrid corpse.
The seven kinds of almsgiving—to callers, travelers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, regular food (to monks), general alms; v. 七有, etc.
The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, at not yet being free from mortality 慚愧心; fear, of the pains of hell, etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, that sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence.
Seven abandonments or riddances―cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is―cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above.
The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha:―his body 身 with its thirty-two signs and eighty-four marks; his way 道 of universal mercy; his perfect insight or doctrine 見; his wisdom 智; his supernatural power 神 力; his ability to overcome hindrances 斷障, e.g. illusion, karma, and suffering; and his abiding place 住 i.e. Nirvana. Cf. 七勝事.
sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a non-Buddhist nihilistic doctrine discussed in the 楞 伽 經 4.
The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarnation.
Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highest grade.
The seven characteristics of a Buddha’s nature, v. 自性.
The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk.
Buddha’s seven modes of discourse: 因語 from present cause to future effect; 果語 from present effect to past cause; 因果語 inherent cause and effect; 喩語 illustrative or figurative; 不應説語 spontaneous or parabolic; 世界流語 ordinary or popular; 如意語 unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. as when he said that all things have the Buddha-nature.
The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas :― direct and unimpeded; acute and deep; unlimited in scope; irrefutable; appropriate, or according to receptivity; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana); proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahayana.
The seven kinds of food or āhāra, sustenance :―sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragrance for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mind, and freedom from laxness for nirvana.
The seven unrealities or illusions,v.空. There are two lists:(1)相空,性自性空,行空,無行空,一切法離言説空,第一義聖智大空 and彼彼空; v.Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 1.(2) 性空, 自相空, 諸法空, 不可得空,無法空, 有法空, and 有法無法空.智度論36.
karmavācā; the 七治The seven punishments of a monk.
七聖財.saptadhana. The seven sacred graces variously defined, e.g. 信 faith, 戒 observation of the commandments, 聞hearing instruction, 慙 shame (for self), 愧 shame (for others); 捨 renunciation; and慧 wisdom.
saptabodhyaṅga, also 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支, 七等覺支. Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the 七科七道品 in the seven categories of the bodhipakṣika dharma, v. 三十七菩提分 it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1)擇法覺支(or 擇法菩提分 and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-saṃbodhyaṇga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) 精進 vīrya-saṃbodhyaṇga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) 喜prīti-saṃbodhyaṇga., joy, delight; (4) 輕安 or 除 praśrabdhi-saṃbodhyaṇga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) 念 smrti-saṃbodhyaṇga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) 定 samādhi-saṃbodhyaṇga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) 行捨 or 捨 upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṇga or upekṣaka, complete abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind.
The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. 七善提分. Another versionispure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana.
The crag at Rājagṛha on which the “seven-leaf tree” grew in the cave beneath which the first “synod” is said to have been held after the Buddha’s death, to recall and determine his teaching.
The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the 華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the 七處九會. 七處平等相 One of the thirty-two signs on the Budda’s body—the perfection of feet, hands, shoulders, and head.
The seven classes of disciples:―(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments; (3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and (5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group.
The seven types who fall into the waters of this life—the first is drowned, the seventh is a Buddha; the seven are icchantika, men amd devas, ordinary believers, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; also ca11ed 七衆人.
The seven heretical views, v. 見. They are 邪見 , 我見 , 常見 , 斷見 , 戒盜見, 果盜見, and 疑見.
or 支, v. 七菩提分.
(師) v. 三師七證.
The ten names of the seventh vijñāna, v. manas 未那識.
(七賢位) Also七方便位, 七加行位 The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entry into見道faultless wisdom, or faultlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the七聖 (七聖位). Both are grades of the倶舍 Kośa school of Hīnayāna.
The 七聖 are the seven developments of holiness, which follow the 七賢. In the Huayan 華嚴school they are called 七士夫, 七大夫 or七聖人. Cf. 倶舍論25.
The seven gati or states of sentient beings- nārakagati, in hell; preta, hungry ghost; tiryagyoni, animal; manuṣya, man; ṛṣi, a genius or higher spiritual being; deva, god; asura, demon of the higher order.
seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled 七聲 and 七例 subanta 蘇漫 (or 盤多); sometimes with the Vocative called 八轉彈. The九例 or tiṅanta 丁彦多 are also styled 二九韻, i.e. nine parasmai and nine ātmane.
(七逆罪) The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins — shedding a Buddha’s blood, killing father, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. V. 梵綱經下.
concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins 七逆, for which it is also used.
The seven avenues of gem trees in Paradise.
The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a sea; see 九山八海. Their names are 持隻, 持軸, 雙木 (雙木樹), 擔見, 馬耳 , 障礙 (or 象鼻), 持地 (or 遠) 山.
The seven calamities in the仁王經, 受持品 during which that sūtra should be recited: sun and moon losing their order (eclipses), conste11ations, irregular, fire, flood, wind-storms, drought, brigands Another set is — pestilence, invasion, rebe11ion, unlucky stars, eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. Another is — fire, flood, rakṣas, misrule, evil spirits, cangue and prison, and robbers.
v. 顛倒; viparyaya, the seven inversions, or upside-downs, i.e. contrary or false positions — 想, 見, 心, 常無常, 苦築, 淨不淨, 我無我.
As far as the past (is concerned).
(1) A translation of antaśas meaning “at least”; and (2) of yāvat, as far as.
Even, or at least, a thought.
Navan; nava. Nine.
The nine kinds of error or illusion 見, i.e. views or mental processes, found also in higher conditions of development.
In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages.
The nine lower of the ten worlds, the highest or tenth being the Buddha-world; the nine are always subject to illusion, confused by the senses.
Nine stages of mental concentration when in dhyāna meditation, viz, 安, 攝 , 解, 轉, 伏, 息, 滅, 性, and 持 (住心).
The nine “Indian” ways of showing respect, according to Xuanzang — asking about welfare; bowing the head; holding high the hands; bowing with folded hands; bending the knee; kneeling; hands and knees on the ground; elbows and knees ditto; the whole body prostrate.
The nine kalpas; though Śākyamuni and Maitreya started together, the zeal of the first enabled him to become Buddha nine kalpas sooner; see 大賓積經 111.
Also 九十八隨眠 The Hīnayāna ninety-eight tempters, or temptations, that follow men with all subtlety to induce laxity. They are the ninety-eight kleśas, or moral temptations in the realm of 見思 view and thought, or external and internal ideas.
Also 九十六種外道. Ninety-six classes of non-Buddhists or heretics and their practices, i.e. their six founders and each of them with fifteen schools of disciples; some say 九十五種外道.
The nine monthly visits or ascents to the hall for worship, every third day.
A term in Buddhist logic; the nine possible combinations of like and unlike examples in a syllogism.
Nine classes, or grades, i.e. 上上, 上中, 上下 upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, and so on with 中 and 下. They are applied in many ways, e.g. 上品上生 the highest type of incarnate being, to 下品下生, the lowest, with corresponding karma; see 九品淨土. Each grade may also be subdivided into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdivision ad infinitum.
An abbreviation for 上品上生 the highest grade in the Pure Land, see 九品淨土.
The 僧伽梨 saṇghāṭī. There are nine grades of the monk’s patch robe; the three lowest ranks have 9, 11, and 13 patches, two long patches to one short one; the three middle 15, 17, 19, three long to one short; and the three superior 21, 23, 25, four long to one short.
Those born by transformation from the (heavenly) lotus into the ninefold 安養 Paradise, idem 九品淨土.
The nine forms of Amitābha, corresponding to the nine departments of the Pure Land; chiefly used with reference to the manual signs of his images.
The ninefold future life, in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土. It is detailed in the sutra of this name whose full title is 阿彌陀三摩地集陀羅尼經.
Also九品煩惱 The four 修惑, i.e. illusions or trials in the practice of religion, i.e. desire, anger, pride, ignorance; these are divided each into 九品 q.v.; hence desire has all the nine grades, and so on with the other three.
also 九品淨刹 , 九品安養, 九品蓮臺, 九品往生 The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one’s distance from Amitābha, the consequent aeons that are needed to approach him, and whether one’s lotus will open early or late.
The nine karma to be attained by the conduct or practice through which one may be born into the above Pure Land.
The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitābha.
The nine similes: stars, eye-film, lamp, prestidigitation, dew, bubble, dream, lightning, cloud. There is also another group.
Nine of the 十界 ten dhātu or regions are causative, the tenth is the effect or resultant.
The nine lands, i.e. the 欲界 realm of desire or sensuous realm the four 色界 realms of form or material forms; and the four 無色界 formless realms, or realms beyond form; v. 九有, 九有情居, 禪 and 定. The nine realms are:—(1) 欲界五趣地; the desire realm with its five gati, i.e. hells, hungry ghosts, animals, men, and devas. In the four form-realms are:— (2) 離生喜樂地 Paradise after earthly life, this is also the first dhyāna, or subject of meditation, 初禪. (3) 定生喜樂地 Paradise of cessation of rebirth, 二禪. (4) 離喜妙樂地 Land of wondrous joy after the previous joys, 三禪. (5) 捨念淸淨地 The Pure Land of abandonment of thought, or recollection (of past delights), 四禪. The four formless, or infinite realms, catur arūpa dhātu, are:—(6) 空無邊處地 ākāśānantyā-yatanam, the land of infinite space; also the first samādhi, 第一定. (7) 識無邊處地 vijñānānamtyāyatanam, the land of omniscience, or infinite perception, 二定. (8) 無所有處地 ākiñcanyāyatana, the land of nothingness, 三定. (9) 非想非非想處地 naivasaṁjñānā-saṁjñāyatana, the land (of knowledge) without thinking or not thinking, or where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, i.e. above either; this is the 四定. Eitel says that in the last four, “Life lasts 20,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd, and 80,000 great kalpas in the 4th of these heavens.”
idem 九地 and 九界.
The nine graha, i.e. “seizers” or upholders, i.e. luminaries or planets, idem 九曜.
idem Kuśinagara; v. 拘.
Also 九入, 九竅, 九漏, 九流, 九瘡 the nine orifices, cavities, entrances, leakages, or suppurations, i.e. the two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, and two lower organs.
The nine magical characters 臨兵鬪者皆陳列在前 implying that the armed forces are arrayed against the powers of evil. After reciting these DICT_ENTRY_WORDs, four vertical and five horizontal lines, forming a grid, are drawn in the air to show that the forces are arrayed. It was used among Taoists and soldiers, and is still used in Japan, especially when going into the mountains.
The nine character maṇḍala, i.e. the lotus, with its eight petals and its centre; Avalokiteśvara may be placed in the heart and Amitābha on each petal, generally in the shape of the Sanskrit “seed” letter, or alphabetic letter.
The eight sects 八宗 (q.v.) plus the 禪宗 Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jōdo sect.
The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhātu, i.e. Vairocana in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the petals, the lotus representing the human heart; v. 五佛.
The nine cakravāla, or concentric mountain ranges or continents, separated by eight seas, of a universe. The central mountain of the nine is Sumeru 須彌 and around it are the ranges Khadiraka 佶提羅, Īṣādhara 伊沙陀羅, Yugaṃdhara 遊乾陀羅, Sudarśaṇa 蘇達梨舍那, Aśvakarṇa 安濕縛竭拏, Nemiṃdhara 尼民陀羅, Vinataka 毘那多迦, Cakravāda 斫迦羅; v. 七金山. The Abhidharma Kośa gives a different order: Sumeru, Yugaṃdhara, Īṣādhara, Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, with an “iron-wheel” mountain encompassing all; there are also differences in the detail.
The nine forms of complete knowledge of the four axioms and the cutting off of passion, delusion, etc., in the processes of 見 and 修, as distinct from 無學.
The nine penetrating fames of the sDICT_ENTRY_WORD of Acala, 不動明王, emblem of the destruction of illusions and hindrances in the nine realms, v. 九地; also used for the 九尊 q.v.
The nine evolutions, or movements of the mind in perception.
also 九難, 九橫, 九罪報 The nine distresses borne by the Buddha while in the flesh, i.e. the two women Sundarā and Cañcā; others from Devadatta, Ajātaśatru, etc.; v. 智度論 9.
(九想觀) or 九相 navasaṃjñā. Meditation on a corpse in order to curb desire; one of the meditations on the unclean: vyādhmātakasaṃjñā, its tumefaction; vinīlakas., its blue, mottled colour; vipadumakas., its decay; vilohitakas., its mess of blood,etc.; vipūyakas., its discharges and rotten flesh; vikhāditakas., its being devoured by birds and beasts; vikṣiptakas., its dismembering; asthis., its bones; vidagdhakas., their being burnt and returning to dust.
The nine forms of pride: that I surpass, am equal to, not so bad as others; that others surpass, are as bad as, are inferior to me; that none surpass, are equal to, or worse than me.
The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. 大日經, 7; 作禮 salutation to the universal Triratna; 出罪 repentance and confession; 歸依 trust (in the Triratna); 施身 giving of self (to the Tathāgata); 發菩提心 vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; 隨喜 rejoicing (in all good); 勸請 beseeching (all Tathāgatas to rain down the saving law); 奉請法身 praying for the Buddha-nature in self and others for entry in the Pure Land; 迴向 demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of service is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character.
Of the ten pāramitā bodhisattvas, q.v., in the tenth or empyrean court of the Garbhadhātu, the first nine are associated with the above nine progressive steps, the tenth is associated with the last four of the nine.
九執 q.v. Navagraha. The nine luminaries: 日 Āditya, the sun; 月 Sōma, the moon; the five planets, i.e. 火星 Aṅgāraka, Mars; 水 Budha, Mercury; 木 Bṛhaspati, Jupiter; 金 Sukra, Venus; and 土 Śanaiścara, Saturn; also 羅睺 Rāhu, the spirit that causes eclipses; and 計都 Ketu, a comet. Each is associated with a region of the sky and also with a bodhisattva, etc., e.g. the sun with Guanyin, Venus with Amitābha, etc.
(九會曼陀羅) The nine groups in the diamond-realm maṇḍala.
The Huayan sutra 華嚴經 in its older sixty chuan version is said to have been delivered at eight assemblies in seven places; the newer eighty chuan at nine assemblies in seven places; cf. 九處.
The nine realities, states, or conditions in which sentient beings enjoy to dwell, v. next.
(or 九有情處), 九衆生居, 九居, 九門, see also 九有, 九地, 九禪 and 九定; the nine happy abodes or states of sentient beings of the 長阿含經 9; they are the 七識住seven abodes or stages of perception or consciousness to which are added the fifth and ninth below: (1) 欲界之人天 the world and the six deva-heavens of desire in which there is variety of bodies (or personalities) and thinking (or ideas); (2) 梵衆天the three brahma heavens where bodies differ but thinking is the same, the first dhyāna heaven; (3) 極光淨天 the three bright and pure heavens where bodies are identical but thinking diners, the second dhyāna heaven; (4) 遍淨天the three universally pure heavens where bodies and thinking are the same, the third dhyāna heaven; (5) 無想天 the no-thinking or no-thought heaven, the highest of the four dhyāna heavens; (6) 空無邊處 limitless space, the first of the formless realms; (7) 識無邊處 limitless percepton, the second ditto; (8) 無所有處 nothingness, the place beyond things, the third ditto; and (9) 非想非非想beyond thought or non-thought, the fourth ditto.
九條袈裟 The lowest rank of the patch-robe, v. 九品大衣.
The nine heavens of the fourth dhyāna heaven.
The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduct that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the formless realm there are non-causative deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 成實論 8.
See also 九惱.
The nine kinds of irregular death; there are two groups, one connected with improper food or meals, another with improper medical treatment, law‐breaking, drowning, etc. .
A sūtra translated in the later Han dynasty by 安世高 An Shigao.
The samādhi of the nine degrees, i.e. the four dhyānas 四禪, the four realms beyond form 四無色, and the samādhi beyond sensation and thought 滅受想定; see 九有情居 and 九地.
九漏 idem | 孔.
The nine grades (of arhats) who are no longer learning, having attained their goal.
The nine kinds of, and meditations on, 無爲 q.v. There are two somewhat different groups; one has 擇滅, 非擇滅, 虛空, 空無邊處, 識無邊處, 無所有處, 非想非非想處 (v. 九有情處), 緣起支性, and 聖道支性.
In every universe there are nine realms, in every realm there are nine illusions in practice 修, and nine ways of relief; hence the nine ways of overcoming hindrances; also there are nine uninterrupted ways of advance from one stage to another of the nine stages of the 三界 trailokya, by the wisdom of overcoming delusion in each stage; also 九無礙道 ; and cf. 九解脫道.
(九界情執) The nine realms of error, or subjection to the passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm.
(相承) The succession of nine founders of the Tiantai School; v. 天台九宗.
The nine kinds of Mahāyāna dhyāna for bodhisattvas, given in the 菩薩地持經 6 and in other works; they are associated with the patience 忍 pāramitā and with the dhyāna of the super-realms. The nine are meditations: (1) 自性禪 on the original nature of things, or mind as the real nature, from which all things derive; (2) 一切禪 on achieving the development of self and all others to the utmost; (3) 難禪 on the difficulties of certain dhyāna conditions; (4) 一切禪 on the entrance to all the (superior) dhyāna conditions; (5) 善人禪 on the good; (6) 一切行禪 on all Mahāyāna practices and actions; (7) 除煩惱禪 on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion and delusion; (8) 此世他世樂禪 on the way to bring joy to all people both in this life and hereafter; (9) 淸淨淨禪 on perfect purity in the termination of all delusion and distress and the obtaining of perfect enlightenment.
The nine bonds that bind men to mortality: love, hate, pride, ignorance, (wrong)views, possessions (or grasping), doubt, envy, meanness (or selfishness). They are the 六隨眠 plus grasping, envy, and meanness.
The nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation. The nine states are the hells of fire, of blood, of sDICT_ENTRY_WORDs; asuras, men, devas, māras, nirgranthas, form and formless states; these are all saṃsāra states, i.e. of reincarnation. The one state of freedom, or for obtaining freedom, is nirvāṇa.
Formerly called 九子山, which was changed by the Tang poet Li Bai to the above; it is one of the four sacred mountains of Buddhism, situated in Anhui, and its patron Bodhisattva is Dizang 地藏.
The paradise of Amitābha, i.e. 九品蓮臺.
The 七衆 q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight commandments.
In the nine stages trailokya三界 each has its possible delusions and erroneous performances; the latter are overcome by the九無間道q.v.
The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijñāna); those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, mind, mānas (or阿陁那識 ādāna), i.e. mental perception; 阿賴耶 ālāya, bodhi-consciousness, and 阿摩羅識 amala, purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the meaning of the last three.
The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called 空輪the wheels of space; the nine should only be on the stūpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one.
Kumārajīva’s nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Sūtra, whence he was styled the 九轍法師.
The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa.
(九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩, 論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha’s sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經.
The five elements together with time, space, mind (manas), and soul (ātman) according to the teaching of the “heretical” Vaiśeṣika sect; v. 鞞.
The nine kinds of birth; the four from the womb, egg, moisture, transformation are common to devas, earth, and the hells; the five others are birth into the heavens of form, of non-form, of thought, of non-thought, and of neither (i.e. beyond either).
The nine classes of ghosts are of three kinds: without means, small means, rich. The first group have 炬口 burning torch-like mouths, or 鍼口 narrow needle mouths, or 臭口 stinking mouths; the second group have hair like needles, or stinking hair, or tumours; the rich ghosts haunt sacrifices to the dead, or eat human leavings, or live truculently.
the nine kinds of days of abstinence on which no food is eaten after twelve o’clock: noon and the commands are observed. They are: Every day of the first month, of the fifth month, of the ninth month, and the following six days of each month, 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. On these days Indra and the four deva-kings investigate the conduct of men.
To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final.
The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.
A revealing cause, v. 二因 , i.e. 生因 a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; and 了因 a revealing “cause”, e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.
The second of the three Buddha-nature “causes”, i.e. 正因佛性 is the 眞如 as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the 法身; 了因佛性 is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated with the Buddha-wisdom; 緣因佛性 is the environing cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation.
The mastery of abstract contemplation.
Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.
A noted disciple named Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya, v. 阿, also known as拘鄰鄰,了本際 and 知本際. He is described as “a prince of Magadha, maternal uncle of Śākyamuni, whose first disciple he became”. He is “to be reborn as Buddha under the name of Samanṭa-Prabhāsa”. Eitel.
Parijñā, thorough knowledge.
Revelation of the whole meaning, or truth, as 不了義 is partial revelation adapted (方便) to the capacity of the hearers.
Teaching of the whole truth.
The sūtras containing it. Mahāyāna counts all Hīnayāna sutras as 不了義經; Mahāyāna sūtras are divided into both kinds according to different schools.
Thorough penetration, clear understanding.
Dvā, dvau. Two; dvitīya, second.
The six non-Buddhist philosophers, 二三邪徒.
This life and the hereafter.
Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna, the Buddha 多賓 in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sūtra; see also 二尊.
The two sages, or preceptors in the Lotus Sūtra, Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna. Also sages and ordinary preceptors.
The two realms of conscious or sentient beings 有情世間, and unconscious or material things 器世間.
dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The “two vehicles” of “three” and “one”, the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which combined all three in one.
The eighteen Hīnayāna sects and the five Vinaya 律sects.
The eighteen 丁岸哆 tiṇanta, personal endings of the Sanskrit verb.
A method of meditation by coupling 法 with 身, 受, 心, respectively. Cf. 四念處觀.
The two groups of food, each of five kinds: bhojanīya, v. 蒲 cereals, fish, and flesh; and khādanīya, v. 佉fruits and sweetmeats.
The two Buddhas sitting together, v. 二世尊.
The period between the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni and the future advent of Maitreya, i.e. the present period.
Dual aspects of the Buddha-nature, i.e., 理佛性 the Buddha-nature which is fundamentally in all sentient beings, and 行佛性 the functioning Buddha-nature active and effective in some, but not in others, a doctrine of the 法相 school.
Two kinds of devotion or practice, 專修 and 雜修 sole or single-minded, and miscellaneous or varied, defined as (1) chief or sole duty, and (2) aids thereto or adjunctive observances. Also 緣修 causative devotion of a bodhisattva in former life, and 眞修 its actual manifestation here.
or 二人倶犯 A term applied by Tiantai in criticism of Huayan, which while it is a 圓敎 perfect or complete doctrine, yet has the “crudities” of the 別敎 and comes short of the really perfect Lotus doctrine.
Two hypotheses in the 唯識論1:— (1) 無體隨情假the non-substantial hypothesis, that there is no substantial entity or individuality, i.e. no 見分 and 相分, no 實我 and 實法, no real subject and object but that all is transient subject and object, but that all is transient emotion; (2) 有體施設假 the factual hypothesis, that there is entity or individuality, subject and object, etc.
The dual lights, i.e. 色光 the halo from a Buddha’s body and 心光 the light from his mind. Also 常光 the constant halo from the bodies of Buddhas and 神通光 the supernatural light sent out by a Buddha (e.g. from between his eyebrows) to illuminate a distant world.
The two ways of entering the truth:— 理入 by conviction intellectually, 行入 by (proving it in) practice.
The sixteen meditations. V. 十六觀.
the twelve vows of 藥師.
during the twelve (=twenty-four) hours of the day.
The two external and internal, or ordinary ranks, 外凡 and 内凡, in the first forty of the fifty-two stages 位; the 外凡 are ordinary believers who pursue the stages of 十信; the 内凡 are the zealous, who are advancing through the next three groups of stages up to the fortieth.
The two modes of escape from mortality, 堅出 the long way called the 聖道門 or 自力敎, i.e. working out one’s own salvation; and 橫出 the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or 他力敎 faith in or invocation of another, i.e. Amitābha.
The dual benefits, or profits: benefiting or developing oneself and others; 自利 in seeking enlightenment in bodhisattvahood, 利他 in saving the multitude. Hīnayāna “seeks only one’s own benefit”; the bodhisattva rule seeks both one’s own benefit and that of others, or personal improvement for the improving of others.
Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) 自力 one’s own strength, or endeavours, i.e. salvation by cultivating 戒, 定, and 慧; 他カ another’s strength, e.g. the saving power of Amitābha. (2) 思擇力 Power of thought in choosing (right principles); 修習力 power of practice and performance. (3) 有力 and 無力 positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; active and inert energy.
The dual aid bestowed by the Buddha, 顯加 manifest or external aid bestowed by the Buddha, in the blessings and powers of this life; 冥加 invisible aid bestowed by the Buddha, in getting rid of sins, increasing virtue, etc.
The two surpassing fruits, or rewards given by Buddha, i.e. final nirvāṇa and perfect enlightenment.
Twenty-two of the 三十七道品 q.v.; they are 四念處, 四正勤、四如意, 足五根 and 五力.
The twenty-two roots, organs, or powers, v. 根. They are: (1) 眼根 eye, cakṣurindriya; (2) 耳 根 ear, śrotrendriya; (3) 鼻根 nose, ghrāṇendriya; (4) 舌根 tongue, jihvendriya; (5) 身根 body, kāyendriya; (6) 意根 mind, manaīndriya (the above are the 六根); (7) 女根 female organ, strīndriya; (8) 男根 male organ, puruṣendriya; (9) 命根 life, jīvitendriya; (10) 苦根 suffering (or pain), duḥkhendriya; (11) 樂根 pleasure, sukhendriya; (12) 憂根 sorrow, daurmanasyendriya; (13) 喜根 joy, saumanas-yendriya; (14) 捨根 abandoning, upekṣendriya (from 10 to 14 they are the 五受); (15) 信根 faith, śraddhendriya; (16) 精進根 zeal, vīryendriya; (17) 念根 memory, smṛtīndriya; (18) 定根 meditation, or trance, samādhīndriya; (19) 慧根 wisdom, prajñendriya (these are the 信等之五根); (20) 未知當知根 the power for learning (the Four Noble Truths) anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya; (21) 巳知根 the power of having learned (them), ājñendriya; (22) 具知根 the power of perfect knowledge (of them), ājñātādvīndriya (these three are called the 無漏根) .
The Abhidharma-kośa divides the eighteen realms 十八界 into twenty-two categories. Also, there are twenty-two modes or processes in the perfect development of a Buddha and his works.
The twenty-five kinds of perfect understanding of the truth; they refer to the 六塵, 六根, 六識, and 七大; disciples of the Buddha are said each to have acquired a special knowledge of one of these twenty-five and to have been recognized as its authority, e. g. Guanyin of the ear, Dignāga of sound, etc.
Tiantai’s twenty-five aids to meditation, v. 止觀.
The twenty-five forms of existence, fourteen in the desire realms 欲界, seven in the realms of form 色界, and four in the formless realms 無色界, v. 有.
The monk’s twenty-five-patch garment, v. 袈.
The twenty-five guardian deities who protect any keeper of the commandments, i.e. five for each of the commandments against killing, robbing, adultery, lying, and drinking.
The twenty-five bodhisattvas who protect all who call on Amitābha i. e. 觀音, 大勢至, 藥王, 藥上, 普賢, 法自在, 師子吼, 陀羅尼, 虛空藏, 佛藏, 菩藏, 金藏, 金剛藏, 山海慧, 光明王, 華嚴王, 衆賓王, 月光王, 日照王, 三昧王, 定自在王, 大自在王, 自象王, 大威德王 and 無邊身菩薩.
Each of the five 更 night watches is divided into five making twenty-five dian.
Sroṇakoṭīviṁśa. Defined as the most zealous of Śākyamuni’s disciples, who became an arhat. Having lived in a heaven for ninety-one kalpas, where his feet did not touch the ground, he was born with hair on his soles two inches long, an omen which led his father and brothers to endow him with twenty kotis of ounces of gold, hence this name. v. 智度論 22.
The twenty-eight heavens, or devalokas: six of the desire-world 欲界, eighteen of the form-world 色界, and four arūpa or formless heavens 無色界. The heavens of the world of form are sixteen according to the 薩婆多部 Sarvāstivāda School, seventeen according to 經部 Sūtra School, and eighteen according to the 上座 Sthavirāḥ.
The twenty-eight nakṣatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven each, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form. E.: 角 Citrā, 亢 Niṣṭyā (or Svāti), 氏 Viśākhā, 房 Anurādhā, 心Rohiṇī, Jyeṣṭhaghnī (or Jyesthā), 尾 Mūlabarhaṇī (or Mūla), 箕 Pūrva-Aṣādha. N.: 斗 Uttara-Aṣāḍhā, 牛 Abhijit, 女Śravaṇā, 盧Śraviṣṭha (or Dhaniṣṭhā) 危Śatabhiṣā, 室 Pūrva-Proṣṭhapada, 壁 Uttara-Proṣṭhapada. W.: 奎 Revatī, 婁 Aśvayuj (or Aśvinī), 胃 Apabharaṇī (or Bharaṇī), 昴 Kṛttikā, 畢 Rohiṇī, 觜 Invakā (or Mṛgaśiras), 參 Bāhu (or Ārdrā). S.: 井 Punarvasu, 鬼 Tiṣya (or Puṣya), 柳 Aśleṣā, 星 Maghā, 張 Pūrva-Phalgunī, 翼 Uttara-Phalgunī, 軫 Hastā.
or 生The twenty-eight forms of existence, or birth. 二十九有 the twenty-ninth is the non-existent; v. 有.
The twenty-eight Buddhist patriarchs as stated by the Mahāyānists. The Tiantai school reckons twenty-three, or twenty-four, with the addition of Śaṇakavāsa, contemporary with his predecessors, but the Chan school reckons twenty-eight: (1) Mahākāśyapa, 摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波); (2) Ānanda, 阿難; (3) Śāṇakavāsa, 商那和修; 4) Upagupta, 優婆毱多; (5) Dhṛṭaka, 提多迦; (6) Mikkaka, or Miccaka, or Micchaka, 彌遮迦; (7) Vasumitra, 婆須蜜; (8) Buddhanandi, 佛陀難提; (9) Buddhamitra, 伏駄蜜多; (10) Pārśva, or Pārśvika, 波栗溼縛or 脇尊者; (11) Puṇyayaśas 那尊耶舍; (12) Aśvaghoṣa, 馬鳴大士; (13) Kapimala, 迦毘摩羅; (14) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹; (15) Kāṇadeva, 迦那提婆; (16) Rāhulata, 羅睺羅多; (17) Saṅghanandi, 僧伽難提; (18) Gayāśata, 伽耶舍多; (19) Kumārata, 鳩摩羅多; (20) Jayata, 闍夜多; (21) Vasubandhu, 婆修盤頭; (22) Manorhita, 摩撃羅; (23) Haklena, 鶴輸勒; (24) Ārasiṁha, 師子尊者; (25) Basiasita, 婆舍新多; (26) Puṇyamitra, 不如密多; (27) Prajñātāra, 般若多羅; (28) Bodhidharma, 菩提達磨.
The twenty-eight yakṣas.
The thousand-hand Guanyin has twenty-eight groups of 大仙衆great ṛṣis or genii, under the direction of the 孔雀王 Peacock king, Mayūrarāja; also each of the 四天王 mahārājas, or guardians of the four regions, has the same provision of demons, known as 鬼神衆 company of spirits.
The name of the 唯識二十論.
The twenty devas. (1) 大梵天王 (Mahābrahman), (2) 帝釋尊天(Śakra devānām Indra), (3) 多聞天王 (Vaiśravana, 毘沙門, or Dhanada), (4) 持國天王(Dhṛtarāṣṭra), (5) 增長天王 (Virūḍhaka), (6) 廣目天王 (Virūpākṣa), (7) 金剛密迹(?Gunyapati), (8) 摩醯首羅 (Maheśvara), (9) 散脂 (迦) 大將 (Pañcika), (10) 大辯才天 (Sarasvatī), (11) 大功德天 (Lakṣmī), (12) 韋驛天神 (Skanda), (13) 堅牢地神 (Pṛthivī), (14) 善提樹神 (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vṛkṣa), (15) 鬼子母神 (Hāritī), (16) 摩利支天 (Marīci), (17) 日宮天子 (Sūrya), (18) 月宮天子 (Candra, etc. There are many different names), (19) 裟竭龍王(Sāgara), (20) 閣摩羅王 (Yama-rāja).
The twenty kinds of wisdom or knowledge as denied by Tiantai i.e. the Hīnayāna (or三藏) with seven kinds, 通教 five, 別教four, and 圓教 four; cf. 智.
The twenty skandhas intp. as 章篇 sections or chapters, i.e. the thirty-one to the fifty-three chuan of the 四分律, beginning with受戒犍度 and ending with 雜犍度; they are twenty sections containing rules for the monastic life and intercourse.
The eighteen Hīnayāna sects, together with the two original assemblies of elders.
The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. 身 and 心.
The two duṣkṛta, doing evil and speaking evil; v. 突吉羅 .
The double harmony or unity, i. e. 理 and 事, indicating those who are united in doctrine and practice, or the saṅgha.
The two good things, 定善 the good character that arises from meditation or contemplation mdash especially of the Pure Land; 散善 the good character attainable when, though not in meditation, one controls oneself in thought, DICT_ENTRY_WORD, and deed;. Also 未生善 the good character not yet evolved; and 已生善 the good character already evolved;. Also 事理善 goodness in theory and practice.
The dual adornment, that of 智慧 wisdom and that of 福德; good deeds, 涅槃經 27.
Two causes, of which there are various definitions: (1) 生因 The producing cause (of all good things); and 了因 the revealing or illuminating cause i.e. knowledge, or wisdom. (2) 能生因 The 8th 識 q. v.: the cause that is able to produce all sense and perceptions, also all good and evil; and 方便因 the environmental or adaptive cause, which aids the 8th 識, as water or earth does the seed, etc. (3) 習因 or 同類因 Practice or habit as cause e. g. desire causing desire; and 報因 or 果熟因 the rewarding cause, or fruit-ripening cause, e. g. pleasure or pain caused by good or evil deeds. (4) 正因 Correct or direct cause i.e. the Buddha-nature of all beings; and 緣因 the contributory cause, or enlightenment (see 了因 above) which evolves the 正因 or Buddha-nature by good works. (5) 近因 Immediate or direct cause and 遠因 distant or indirect cause or causes.
The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.
There are three groups: 性土 and 相土 : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or innocent 法性之理 dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal existence of the dharma, pure or impure according to the mind and action of the living. The 淨土 and 穢土 are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. In the Pure-land there are also 報土 , the land in which a Buddha himself dwells and 化土 in which all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former is Buddha’s Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is transforming, e. g. this Sahā-world.
The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) 我執 or 人執 that of the reality of the ego, permanent personality, the ātman, soul or self. (2) 法執 that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both are illusions. “All illusion arises from holding to the reality of the ego and of things.”
The dual reward. (1) 依報 or 依果 The material environment on which a person depends, resulting from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) 正報 or 正果 his direct reward, i. e. his body, or person.
The two superior kinds of bodhisattvas, 智增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in wisdom (chiefly beneficial to self); 悲增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in pity for others and devotion to their salvation.
The two devas. (1) 日天 and 月天Sun-deva and Moon-deva. (2) 同生天A deva born simultaneously with the individual and 同名天 a deva with the same name as the individual; both devas have the duty of watching over the individual. (3) 梵天 and 帝釋天 Brahma and Indra.
The two devas are Maheśvara and Viṣṇu; the three ṛṣi are Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha; v. 迦, 優, and 勒.
The two sisters, one the deva 功德女 “merit” or “achieving”, who causes people to acquire wealth; the other, 黑闇女 the “dark” one, who causes them to spend and waste; these sisters always accompany each other.
There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in DICT_ENTRY_WORDs, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above.
The dual “marvel” of the Lotus sūtra, the 相待妙 or comparative view, i.e. compared with all previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the 絕待妙 or view of it as the perfection of teaching; hence it is “wonderful” in comparison with all previous doctrine, and absolutely ‘wonderful’ in itself; cf. 二圓.
The two beginnings, i.e. of Hīnayāna, by the preaching of the 阿含 Āgama sūtras; and of Mahāyāna by the preaching of the 華嚴 Avataṁsaka sūtra.
Double-letters, i.e. a monk-because a monk’s name consists of two characters.
The two-character Mañjuśrī.
The two kinds of study or learning: (a) reading and reciting, (b) meditation and thought.
Two theories or schools stated by the Huayan (Kegon) school as 法相宗 and 法性宗 q.v., known also as 相宗 and 性宗. There are ten point of difference between them. Another division is the 空宗 and 性宗 q. v.
The two esoteric aspects, i.e. 理密 and 事密 , the former referring to the doctrine, the latter to the esoteric acts of a Tathāgata.
The two honoured ones, Śākyamuni and Amitābha.
(or 致) The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as one in teaching.
The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as teacher and saviour, with reference to the teaching of the way of salvation of the first, and the consequent saving vows of the second.
The two kinds of introductory phrase: (a) the ordinary opening phrase of a sutra— “Thus have I heard”; and (b) specific openings referring to the circumstances in which the sūtra was produced.
再往 Twice over, a second time.
The two kinds of power or virtue are 智德 and 斷德; also 悲德 and 智德; also 性德 and 修德; q.v. and v. 德.
The two minds, 眞心 the original, simple, pure, natural mind of all creatures, the Buddha-mind, i.e. 如來藏心; and 妄心 the illusion-mind, which results in complexity and confusion. Also, 定心 the meditative mind, or mind fixed on goodness; and the 散心 the scattered, inattentive mind, or mind that is only good at intervals.
The two patiences or endurances: 衆生忍 patience towards all under all circumstances; 無生(法)忍 calm rest, as a bodhisattva、in the assurance of no (re-) birth, i.e. in immortality. Also 安受苦忍 patience under suffering, and 觀察法忍 imperturbable examination of or meditation in the law or of all things. Also, physical and mental patience, or endurance.
The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. 頓悟 immediate and 漸悟 gradual.
The two aspects of illusion: 見惑 perplexities or illusions and temptations arise from false views or theories. 思惑 or 修惑, ditto from thoughts arising through contact with the world, or by habit, such as desire, anger, infatuation, etc. They are also styled 理惑 illusions connected with principles and 事惑 illusions arising, in practice; v. 見思.
The two kinds of love, 欲愛 ordinary human love springing from desire; 法愛 bodhisattva or religious love, i.e. desiring to save all creatures.
The two kinds of transformation-body of a Buddha, i.e. 勝應身 the Buddha’s surpassing body as seen by bodhisattvas, and 劣應身 the Buddha’s inferior human body as seen by ordinary people.
(二我見) The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent nature.
The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the result of (erroneous) reasoning. Cf. 二法執.
The two grades of commandments, or prohibitions, e. g. 十戒 and 具足戒 for monks; 五戒 and 八戒 for the laity; 邪戒 and 正戒 heretical rules and correct rules; and numerous other pairs.
The two values of the commandments: (a) 止持 prohibitive, restraining from evil; (b) 作持 constructive, constraining to goodness.
Dual division of the Buddha’s teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by “exoteric” means all the Buddha’s preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha’s method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete DICT_ENTRY_WORD, or letter, teaching and complete DICT_ENTRY_WORD teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) “supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality,” i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai’s division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai’s division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha’s teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order.
The two times or periods— morning and evening. Also 迦羅 kāla, a regular or fixed hour for meals, and 三昧耶 samaya, irregular or unfxed hours or times.
The two kinds of wisdom; there are various pairs. The Huayan school uses 如理智 and 如量智; the Faxiang (法相) uses 根本智 and 後得智; the Tiantai uses 權智 and 實智. (1) (a) 如理智 or 根本智, 無分別智, 正體智, 眞智, 實智 is Buddha-wisdom, or Bodhisattva real wisdom; (b) 如量智 or 後得智, the same wisdom in its limitation and relation to ordinary human affairs. (2) (a) 實智 Absolute wisdom and (b) 權智 or 方便智 | relative or temporal wisdom. (3) (a) 一切智 wisdom of the all, (b) 一切種智 wisdom of all the particulars.
The two kinds of Tathāgata-wisdom, 實 and 權 absolute and functional (or relative), both perfect and complete.
Sakṛdāgāmin; v. 裟 and 斯. The second “fruit” of the four kinds of Hīnayāna arhats, who have only once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) 習氣果 The good or evil characteristics resulting from habit or practice in a former existence; (b) 報果the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a previous life.
The two “roots” or natural powers. (1) (a) 利根 keen, able (in the religion); (b) 鈍根 dull. (2) (a) 正根; 勝義根The power or ability which uses the sense organs to discern the truth; (b) 扶根; 扶 (or浮) 塵根the sense organs 五根 as aids. (3) The male and female sexual organs.
Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha’s Pure—land e. g. offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method.
The two dāna 檀那, i. e, kinds of donating, or almsgiving: (a) 世間檀 ordinary alms, and (b) 出世間檀 spiritual, or other-worldly gifts.
The two kinds of seeking: 得求 seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) and 命求 seeking long life.
The two rivers and the white path, i.e. the path leading to life between the rivers of desire and hatred, which are compared to water and fire.
The two tenets in regard to things; of. 二我執, i.e. 倶生法執 the common or natural tendency to consider things as real; 分別法執 the tenet of the reality of things as the result of false reasoning and teaching.
Contrasted types of the Dharmakāya; five pairs are given, 理法身 and 智法身; 果極 and 應化法身 ; 自性法身 and 應化法身 ; 法性法身 and 方便法身 ; 理法身 and 事法身 ; cf. 法身.
The two ways in the current of transmigration: 順流 to flow with it in continual re-incarnation; 逆流 resist it and seek a way of escape by getting rid of life’s delusions, as in the case of the saints.
Two Nirvanas, v. 二種涅槃.
The two conditions relating to the passions and delusions: 有漏 the condition in which they can prevail; 無漏 that in which they cannot prevail.
Two kinds of impermanence, immediate and delayed. 念念無常 things in motion, manifestly transient; 相續無常 things that have the semblance of continuity, but are also transient, as life ending in death, or a candle in extinction.
The two categories of anātman: — 人無我 no (permanent) human ego, or soul; 法無我 no (permanent) individuality in or independence of self or of things.
The wisdom that recognizes the two categories of anātman, v. 四諦.
The two neutrals, or indeterminates which cannot be noted as good or evil.
The two kinds of kleśa, i.e. passions, delusions, temptations, or trials. (1) (a) 根本煩惱 The six fundamental kleśas arising from the six senses; (b) 隨煩惱 the twenty consequent kleśas arising out of the six. (2) (a) 分別起煩惱 Kleśa arising from false reasoning; (b) 倶生起煩惱 that which is natural to all. (3) (a) 大煩惱地法The six great, e.g. extravagance, and (b) 小煩惱地法 ten minor afflictions, e.g. irritability. (4) (a) 數行煩惱 Ordinary passions, or temptations; (b) 猛利煩惱fierce, sudden, or violent passions, or temptations.
The two kinds of sin, 止犯 and 作犯.
The two guardian spirits represented on the temple gates, styled Vajrayakṣa 金剛夜叉 or 神 or 夜叉神.
The two kinds of manifestation, or appearance, 須現 the necessary appearance in the flesh of the Buddha for ordinary people, and 不須現 the non-necessity for this to those of spiritual vision.
The 250 commandments, or 具足戒 perfect or complete commandments, which are obligatory on monks and nuns. They are 四波羅夷 or 四根本極惡the four pārājika; 十三殘 thirteen saṅghāvaseṣa; 二不定法 two aniyata; 三十捨隨 thirty naiḥsargikāḥ-pāyattikāḥ; 九十波逸提ninety prāyaścittikāḥ; 四提舍尼four pratideśanīya; 百衆學 hundred śikṣākaraṇīya, and 七滅諍 seven kinds of vinaya for ending disputes.
The dual advantages or benefits: profitable to the life which now is, and that which is to come.
The two forms, or characteristics, of the bhutatathata, universal and particular. The 起信論 gives (a) 淨智相 pure wisdom, cf. ālaya-vijñāna, out of whose primary condition arise (b) 不思議用相 inconceivable, beneficial functions and uses. The same śāstra gives also a definition of the 眞如 as (a) 同相 that all things, pure or impure, are fundamentally of the same universal, e.g. clay which is made into tiles; (b) 異相 but display particular qualities, as affected by pure or impure causes, e.g. the tiles. Another definition, of the 智度論 31, is (a) 總相 universals, as impermanence; (b) 別相 particulars, for though all things have the universal basis of impermanence they have particular qualities, e.g. earth-solidity, heat of fire, etc.
v. 二如 and 眞如.
The second patriarch of the Chan school, Huike 慧可.
the second patriarch in China 慧可 of the Chan school, who, to induce bodhidharma to receive him, is said to have cut of his left arm in the snow in order to prove his firmness and determination.
The bliss of the gods, and the bliss of the saints 聖; v. also 福.
The two fields for the cultivation of happiness: (a) 學人田 the eighteen Hīnayāna classes of those under training in religion; (b) 無學人田 the nine divisions of those no longer in training, i.e. who have completed their course. Also (a) 悲田 the pitable or poor and needy, as the field or opportunity for charity; (b) 敬田the field of religion and reverence of the Buddhas, the saints, the priesthood.
Two kinds or classes For those not given below see under二, etc., as for instance 二種世間 see under二世間.
The two Buddha-domains: (a) 證境 the Buddha’s domain or state of absolute enlightenment; (b) 化境 the domain that the Buddha is transforming.
The two forms of service, or offerings: (1) (a) 出纏供養 to those who have escaped from the toils, e.g. Buddhas; (b) 在纏供養 to those still living in the toils. (2) (a) 財供養 offerings of goods; (b) 法供養 of the Buddha-truth.
The two kinds of light: (1) (a) 色光明 physical light; (b) 智慧光明 or 心光明 wisdom or mental light. (2) (a) 魔光 Māra’s delusive light; (b) 佛光 the true light of the Buddha. (3) (a) 常光The constant or eternal light; (b) 現起光 the light in temporary manifestations.
Two aspects of cause and effect, a division of the 四諦 “four noble truths” (a) 世間因果 in the present life, the 苦諦 being the effect, and the 集諦 the cause; (b) 出世間因果 in the future life, the 滅諦, extinction (of passion, or mortality) being the fruit, and the 道諦 the ” eightfold noble path ” the cause.
Two kinds of seed: (1) (a) 本有種子 the seed or latent undivided (moral) force immanent in the highest of the eight 識, i.e. the ālaya-vijñāna; (b) 新薰種子the newly influenced, or active seed when acted upon by the seven other 識, thus becoming productive. (2) (a) 名言種子 The so-called seed which causes moral action similar to 本有種子, e.g. good or evil seed producing good or evil deeds; (b) 業種子 karma seed, the sixth 識 acting with the eighth.
Two kinds of seclusion, or retirement from the world: Bodily withdrawal into seclusion. Spiritual withdrawal from all evil, and into meditation.
Two kinds of charity: (1) (a) goods; (b) the saving truth. (2) (a) 淨施 Pure charity, expecting no return; (b) the opposite.
Two kinds of mind: mind in its inner character and influence; in its outer manifestations.
Two kinds of patience, or endurance: (a) of the assaults of nature, heat, cold, etc.; (b) of human assaults and insults.
Two kinds of seed-nature, the character of the ālaya seed and its development: (1) (a) 性種子 The original good seed-nature; (b) 習種子 the seed-nature in practice or development. (2) (a) 本性住種性 The immanent abiding original good seed-nature; (b) 習所成種性 the seed productive according to its ground. (3) (a) 聖種性 The seed-nature of the saints, by which they attain nirvana; (b) 愚夫種性 the seed-nature in the foolish and ignorant.
Two classes of Buddha’s predictions of a disciple’s destiny, 無餘授記prediction in finality, or complete detail; 有餘授記 partial, or incomplete prediction.
The two kinds of death, 命盡死 natural death, and 外緣死 violent death, or death from external cause.
Two classes of monks: 多聞比丘 monks who hear and repeat many sūtras, but are not devoted doers; 寡淺比丘 monks who read and repeat few sutras but are devoted in their lives.
Two nirvanas: (1) 有餘涅槃 also 有餘依 That with a remnant; the cause 因 has been annihilated, but the remnant of the effect 果 still remains, so that a saint may enter this nirvana during life, but have to continue to live in this mortal realm till the death of his body. (2) 無餘涅槃 or 無餘依 Remnantless nirvāṇa, without cause and effect, the connection with the chain of mortal life being ended, so that the saint enters upon perfect nirvāṇa on the death of the body; cf. 智度論 31. Another definition is that Hīnayāna has further transmigration, while Mahāyāna maintains final nirvana. “Nothing remnaining” is differently interpreted in different schools, by some literally, but in Mahāyāna generally, as meaning no further mortal suffering, i.e. final nirvāṇa.
Two kinds of purity, according to the Huayan sūtra; 自性淸淨 natural purity, i.e. the natural 眞如 purity; and 離垢淸淨 acquired purity through avoiding pollution.
Two forms of esoteric baptism, v. 灌.
Two kinds of sickness: physical and mental or spiritual.
Two classes of saints or, preachers: those who preach and those who preach without DICT_ENTRY_WORDs.
Two kinds of relics— the whole body, or parts of it. Also, the Buddha’s physical remains or relics, and the sutras, which form his spiritual (dharmakāya) remains.
Monastic and lay bodhisattvas.