Từ Điển Thuật Ngữ Phật Học Hán Ngữ
A demon of the nerves who troubles those who sit in meditation. Also 堆惕鬼; 埠惕鬼.
A demon of the nerves who troubles those who sit in meditation. Also 堆惕鬼; 埠惕鬼.
To heat; a pot.
bodhisattva, v. 菩.
Disturb, perturb, confusion, disorder, rebellion.
A disorderly monk.
To disturb the good, confound goodness; the confused goodness of those who worship, etc., with divided mind.
A perturbed or confused mind, to disturb or unsettle the mind.
To think confusedly, or improperly.
To take to be, consider as, etc.
Gigantic, monstrous, part man part devil; a puppet.
A puppet, marionette.
To superintend, teach; a tutor; to paint; a function; annex.
The instructions of a teacher: to instruct.
Near, adjoining, side, dependent.
tiryagyoni, ‘born of or as an animal’ (M. W.); born to walk on one side, i.e. belly downwards, because of sin in past existence.
The animal path, that of rebirth as an animal, one of the six gati.
To transmit, pass on, hand down, promulgate, propagate; tradition; summon; interpret; record; the Abhidharma.
To pass from mind to mind, to pass by narration or tradition, to transmit the mind of Buddha as in the Intuitional school, mental transmission.
To transmit the commandments, to grant them as at ordination.
To maintain what has been transmitted; to transmit and maintain.
To spread the teaching, or doctrine; to transmit and instruct.
To transmit, or spread abroad the Buddha truth.
To transmit the light, pass on the lamp of truth.
To hand down the mantle, or garments.
Universal propagation; unhindered transmission.
To injure, wound, hurt, harm, distress, A tr. of yakṣa.
Injury to life.
To disturb the harmony.
To cut, gash, sever.
To cut off.
jina, victorious, from ji, to overcome, surpass.
The victorious vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna.
Jinamitra, friend of the Jina, or, having the Jina for friend; also the name of an eloquent monk of Nālandā, circa A. D. 630, author of Sarvāstivādavinaya-saṅgrāha, tr. A. D. 700.
Victor, one who keeps the commandments.
v. 祇. The Jeta grove, Jetavana.
Uttarakuru, v. 鬱 the continent north of Meru.
The victorious mind, which carries out the Buddhist discipline.
A Tiantai term for the superior incarnational Buddha-body, i.e. his compensation-body under the aspect of 他受用身 saving others.
v. 祇 The Jeta grove, Jetavana.
The surpassing fruit, i.e. that of the attainment of Buddhahood, in contrast with Hīnayāna lower aims; two of these fruits are transcendent nirvāṇa and complete bodhi.
Pūrvavideha, Videha, the continent east of Meru.
Beyond description, that which surpasses mere earthly ideas; superlative, inscrutable.
The surpassing organ, i.e. intellectual perception, behind the ordinary organs of perception, e.g. eyes, ears, etc.
The superlative dharma, nirvāṇa.
nirvāṇa as surpassingly real or transcendental.
The superior truth, enlightened truth as contrasted with worldly truth.
Paramārtha-satya-śāstra, a philosophical work by Vasubandhu.
Pradhāna, pre-eminent, predominant.
v. 吠 Vaiśeṣika-śāstra.
The Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy, whose foundation is ascribed to Kaṇāda (Ulūka); he and his successors are respectfully styled 論師 or slightingly 論外道; the school, when combined with the Nyāya, is also known as Nyāya-vaiśeṣika .
Prasenajit, conquering army, or conqueror of an army; king of Kośala and patron of Śākyamuni; also one of the Maharājas, v. 明王.
Mālyaśrī, daughter of Prasenajit, wife of the king of Kośala (Oudh), after whom the Śrīmālādevi-siṃhanāda 會 and 經 are named.
Toil, labour, trouble; to reward.
Troublesome companions, e.g. the passions.
The annoyance or hatred of labour, or trouble, or the passions, or demons.
The troublers, or passions, those which hold one in bondage.
To solicit, call upon, invite: enroll, enlist, subscribe.
募化 To raise subscriptions.
bala, sthāman. Power, influence, authority; aspect, circumstances.
A powerful demon.
śaila, craggy, mountainous, mountain.
He whose wisdom and power reach everywhere, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, i.e. 大勢至 q.v. Great power arrived (at maturity), the bodhisattva on the right of Amitābha, who is the guardian of Buddha-wisdom.
vīrya, energy, zeal, fortitude, virility; intp. also as 精進 one of the pāramitās.
A tr. of śramaṇa, one who diligently pursues the good, and ceases from evil.
To seek diligently (after the good).
Devoted and suffering, zealously suffering.
Diligently going forward, zealous conduct, devoted to service, worship, etc.
Wide, universal; widely read, versed in; to cause; gamble; barter.
Vaṅkṣu; Vakṣu; v. 縛 the Oxus.
博叉半擇迦 pakṣa-paṇḍakās; partial eunuchs, cf. 半.
pakṣa, half a lunar month; also used for Māra’s army.
Third personal pronoun; demonstrative pronoun; also used instead of 倶.
Its name is (so-and-so).
To wail; crow.
To weep and wail; to weep.
The ever-wailing Buddha, the final Buddha of the present kalpa; cf. 薩陀.
su; sādhu; bhadra; kuśala. Good, virtuous, well; good at; skilful.
A good man, especially one who believes in Buddhist ideas of causality and lives a good life.
svāgata, susvāgata; ‘welcome’; well come, a title of a Buddha; v. 善逝.
A good kalpa, bhadrakalpa, especially that in which we now live.
kalyāṇamitra, ‘a friend of virtue, a religious counsellor,’ M. W.; a friend in the good life, or one who stimulates to goodness.
sādhu. Good! excellent!
Good causation, i.e. a good cause for a good effect.
Abiding in goodness, disciples who keep eight commandments, upavasatha, poṣadha.
Clever, skilful, adroit, apt.
A good heart, or mind.
Good nature, good in nature, or in fundamental quality.
Good and evil; good, inter alia, is defined as 順理, evil as 違理; i.e. to accord with, or to disobey the right. The 十善十惡 are the keeping or breaking of the ten commandments.
sādhumatī, v. 十地.
Good month, i.e. the first, fifth, and ninth; because they are the most important in which to do good works and thus obtain a good report in the spirit realm.
Good stock, or roots, planting good seed or roots; good in the root of enlightenment.
Good fruit from 善因 q.v.; good fortune in life resulting from previous goodness.
Well appearing, name of Subhūti, v. 蘇.
(or 善現色) Suḍṛśa, the seventh brahmaloka; the eighth region of the fourth dhyāna.
Sujāta, ‘well born, of high birth,’ M. W. Also tr. of Susaṃbhava, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.
Good men and believing women.
Good sons, or sons of good families, one of the Buddha’s terms of address to his disciples, somewhat resembling ‘gentlemen’.
vibhāvana, clear perception.
A good friend or intimate, one well known and intimate.
The good devas, or spirits, who protect Buddhism, 8, 16, or 36 in number; the 8 are also called 善鬼神.
sudarśana, good to see, good for seeing, belle vue, etc., similar to 喜見 q.v.
Sudhana, a disciple mentioned in the 華嚴經 34 and elsewhere, one of the 四勝身 q.v.; the story is given in Divyāvadāna, ed. Cowell and Neil, pp. 441 seq.
sugata, well departed, gone as he should go; a title of a Buddha; cf. 善來.
Lama, the Lamaistic form of Buddhism found chiefly in Tibet, and Mongolia, and the smaller Himālayan States. In Tibet it is divided into two schools, the older one wearing red robes, the later, which was founded by Tson-kha-pa in the fifteenth century, wearing yellow; its chiefs are the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, respectively.
To call, summon.
半鐘 (or飯鐘) The dinner bell or gong.
prīti; ānanda. Joy; glad; delighted, rejoice; to like.
The sensation, or receptivity, of joy; to receive with pleasure.
The ‘patience’ of joy, achieved on beholding by faith Amitābha and his Pure Land; one of the 三忍.
喜歡; 喜樂 Pleased, delighted.
Joy-grove garden, a name for Indra’s garden or paradise.
priyadarśana. Joyful to see, beautiful, name of a kalpa.
Sudarśana, the city, beautiful, the chief city or capital, of the thirty-three Indra-heavens; also 善見域.
The Trāyastriṃśas, or thirty-three devas or gods of Indra’s heaven, on the summit of Meru.
The Bodhisattva Beautiful, an incarnation of藥王.
The third bodhyaṅga, the stage of joy on attaining the truth.
To shout, bawl, call, scold; to drink.
Gahan, an ancient kingdom, also called 東安國, i.e. Eastern Parthia, west of Samarkand, now a district of Bukhara.
Illustrate, example; to know 宗因喩q.v. The example (dṛṣṭānta) in a syllogism.
The subject of the example, e.g. a vase, or bottle; as contrasted with 喩體 the predicate, e.g. (the vase) is not eternal.
Mourning. To lose; destroy.
Gifts to monks for masses for the dead.
khakkhara, a beggar’s staff; an abbot’s staff.
To eat ordinary, or vegetarian food.
Gautami; v. 瞿.
Single, alone; only; the odd numbers; poor, deficient; a bill, cheque, etc.; cf. 但.
A single seat, or position; also a fixed, or listed position, or seat.
In front of one’s listed name, i.e. in one’s allotted place.
The single hempseed a day to which the Buddha reduced his food before his enlightenment.
Fond of, given up to, doting; translit. sh, j sounds.
Jinayaśas, a noted monk.
Alas ! translit. cha.
To clear the throat; translit. u, cf. 鬱, 烏, 溫, 優.
(or嗢怛羅) uttarā, tr. by 上 superior, predominant, above all.
Uttarasena, a king of Udyāna who obtained part of Śākyamuni’s relics.
Uttarakuru, one of the four continents, that north of Meru.
Uttarāṣāḍhā, the nakṣatra presiding over the second half of the 4th month, ‘the month in which Śākyamuni was conceived.’ Eitel.
uśīra, fragrant root of Andropogon muricatus.
嗢倶吒 utkuṭukāsana, v. 結跏 to squat on the heels.
uṣṇīṣa, the protuberance on the Buddha’s head, v. 烏.
utsaṅga, 100,000 trillions, a 大嗢蹭伽 being a quadrillion, v. 洛叉.
(嗢鉢羅) utpala, the blue lotus; the 6th cold hell.
To succeed to, continue, adopt, posterity, follow after.
To succeed to the dharma, or methods, of the master, a term used by the meditative school; 傳法 is used by the esoteric sect.
高車; 高昌. M067729彝 Uighurs, M067729胡; A branch of the Turks first heard of in the seventh century in the Orkhon district where they remained until A. D. 840, when they were defeated and driven out by the Kirghiz; one group went to Kansu, where they remained until about 1020; another group founded a kingdom in the Turfan country which survived until Mongol times. They had an alphabet which was copied from the Soghdian. Chingis Khan adopted it for writing Mongolian. A. D. 1294 the whole Buddhist canon was translated into Uighur.
Surround, enclose, encircle, go round.
To surround, go round; especially to make three complete turns to the right round an image of Buddha.
vihāra; place for walking about, pleasure-ground, garden, park.
A garden look-out, or terrace.
A gardener, or head of a monastery-garden, either for pleasure, or for vegetables.
Round, all-round, full-orbed, inclusive, all-embracing, whole, perfect, complete.
The all-complete vehicle, the final teaching of Buddha.
The perfect status, the position of the ‘perfect’ school, perfect unity which embraces all diversity.
The Buddha of the ‘perfect’ school, the perfect pan-Buddha embracing all things in every direction; the dharmakāya; Vairocana, identified with Śākyamuni.
Complete faith; the faith of the ‘perfect’ school. A Tiantai doctrine that a moment’s faith embraces the universe.
(1) TO observe the complete Tiantai meditation, at one and the same time to comprehend the three ideas of 空假中 q.v. (2) To keep all the commandments perfectly.
The halo surrounding the head of a Buddha, etc.
whole and complete, i.e. the whole of the commandments, by the observance of which one is near to nirvāṇa.
Complete crystallization, or formation, i.e. perfect nirvāṇa.
All-embracing, all inclusive.
Round altar; a complete group of objects of worship, a maṇḍala.
The mystery of the ‘perfect’ school, i.e. the complete harmony of 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way.
The sect of the complete or final Buddha-truth, i.e. Tiantai; cf. 圓教.
Perfect rest, i.e. parinirvāṇa; the perfection of all virtue and the elimination of all evil, release from the miseries of transmigration and entrance into the fullest joy.
The complete teaching of Tiantai and the esoteric teaching. Also, the harmony of both as one.
Perfect reality; the Tiantai perfect doctrine which enables one to attain reality or Buddhahood at once.
The perfect mind, the mind that seeks perfection, i.e. nirvāṇa.
Completely to apprehend the truth. In Tiantai, the complete apprehension at the same time of noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way.
The perfect true nature, absolute reality, the bhūtatathatā.
The complete, perfect, or comprehensive doctrine; the school or sect of Mahāyāna which represents it. The term has had three references. The first was by 光統 Guangtong of the Later Wei, sixth century, who defined three schools, 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 inclusive or complete. The Tiantai called its fourth section the inclusive, complete, or perfect teaching 圓, the other three being 三藏 Hīnayāna, 通 Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna, 別 Mahāyāna. The Huayan so called its fifth section, i.e. 小乘; 大乘始; 大乘終; 頓 and 圓. It is the Tiantai version that is in general acceptance, defined as a perfect whole and as complete in its parts; for the whole is the absolute and its parts are therefore the absolute; the two may be called noumenon and phenomenon, or 空 and 假 (or 俗), but in reality they are one, i.e. the 中 medial condition. To conceive these three as a whole is the Tiantai inclusive or ‘perfect’ doctrine. The Huayan ‘perfect’ doctrine also taught that unity and differentiation, or absolute and relative, were one, a similar doctrine to that of the identity of contraries. In Tiantai teaching the harmony is due to its underlying unity; its completeness to the permeation of this unity in all phenomena; these two are united in the medial 中 principle; to comprehend these three principles at one and the same time is the complete, all-containing, or ‘perfect’ doctrine of Tiantai. There are other definitions of the all-inclusive doctrine, e.g. the eight complete things, complete in teaching, principles, knowledge, etc. 圓教四門 v. 四門.
The Tiantai doctrine of the complete cutting off, at one remove, of the three illusions, i.e. 見思 associated with 空; 塵沙 with 假; and 無明 with 中; q. v.
Perfect fruit, nirvāṇa.
Inclusive to the uttermost; absolute perfection.
The potentiality of becoming fully enlightened at once.
The all-embracing ocean, i.e. the perfection or power of the Tathāgata.
Completely full; wholly complete; the fulfilling of the whole, i.e. that the part contains the whole, the absolute in the relative.
The complete, or all-inclusive sūtra, a term applied to the Huayan jing.
Complete vacuity, i.e. 空空, from which even the idea of vacuity is absent.
Complete combination; the absolute in the relative and vice versa; the identity of apparent contraries; perfect harmony among all differences, as in water and waves, passion and enlightenment, transmigration and nirvāṇa, or life and death, etc.; all are of the same fundamental nature, all are bhūtatathatā, and bhūtatathatā is all; waves are one with waves, and water is one with water, and water and wave are one.
The three dogmas of 空假中 as combined, as one and the same, as a unity, according to the Tiantai inclusive or perfect school. The universal 空 apart from the particular 假 is an abstraction. The particular apart from the universal is unreal. The universal realizes its true nature in the particular, and the particular derives its meaning from the universal. The middle path 中 unites these two aspects of one reality.
The conduct or discipline of the Tiantai ‘perfect’ school.
Complete enlightenment potentially present in each being, for all have 本覺 primal awareness, or 眞心 the true heart (e. g. conscience), which has always remained pure and shining; considered as essence it is the 一心 one mind, considered causally it is the Tathāgata-garbha, considered it is|| perfect enlightenment, cf. 圓覺經.
Exposition of the perfect or all-embracing doctrine, as found in the Huayan and Lotus Sūtras.
Universally penetrating; supernatural powers of omnipresence; universality; by wisdom to penetrate the nature or truth of all things.
The various samādhi of supernatural powers of the twenty-five ‘great ones’ of the 楞嚴經 Surangama sūtra, especially of 圓通大士 the omnipresent hearer of those who call, i.e. Guanyin.
The perfect way (of the three principles of Tiantai, v. above).
Complete and immediate, i.e. to comprehend the three principles 空假中 at one and the same time, cf. 圓教.
The complete immediate vehicle, that of Tiantai.
圓頓教 See 圓頓一乘.
The rules of the Tiantai school, especially for attaining immediate enlightenment as above; also called 圓頓無作大戒 (or 圓頓菩薩大戒).
(圓頓止觀) as given in the 摩訶止觀 is the concentration, or mental state, in which is perceived, at one and the same time, the unity in the diversity and the diversity in the unity, a method ascribed by Tiantai to the Lotus Sūtra; v. above.
Airāvana, a king of the elephants; Indra’s white elephant, cf. 伊. It is also confused with Airāvata in the above senses, and for certain trees, herbs, etc.; also with Elāpattra, name of a nāga.
To bear, sustain, be adequate to.
sahā; to bear, patiently endure.
The sahā world of endurance of suffering; any world of transmigration.
The stage of endurance, the first of the ten bodhisattva stages.
Ability to bear, or undertake.
Recompense, retribution, reward, punishment, tell.
To thank the Buddha; also idem報身.
The life of reward or punishment for former deeds.
The cause of retribution.
The land of reward, the Pure Land.
To acknowledge, or requite favours.
Almsgiving out of gratitude.
The field for requiting blessings received, e.g. parents, teachers, etc.
Recompense, reward, punishment; also the 報身 and 應身 q.v.
The reward-fruit, or consequences of past deeds.
Pauṣa, the first of the three Indian winter months, from the 16th of the 10th Chinese month.
A degree of bodhisattva samādhi in which transcendental powers are obtained.
The circumstantial cause of retribution.
To acknowledge and thank; also, retribution ended.
Reward body, the saṃbhoga-kāya of a Buddha, in which he enjoys the reward of his labours, v. 三身 trikāya.
The supernatural powers that have been acquired as karma by demons, spirits, nāgas, etc.
The veil of delusion which accompanies retribution.
Area, arena, field, especially the bodhi-plot, or place of enlightenment, etc.; cf. 道場; 菩提場.
To model in clay.
To model images.
stūpa; tope; a tumulus, or mound, for the bones, or remains of the dead, or for other sacred relics, especially of the Buddha, whether relics of the body or the mind, e.g. bones or scriptures. As the body is supposed to consist of 84,000 atoms, Aśoka is said to have built 84,000 stūpas to preserve relics of Śākyamuni. Pagodas, dagobas, or towers with an odd number of stories are used in China for the purpose of controlling the geomantic influences of a neighbourbood. Also 塔婆; 兜婆; 偸婆; 藪斗波; 窣堵波; 率都婆; 素覩波; 私鍮簸, etc. The stūpas erected over relics of the Buddha vary from the four at his birthplace, the scene of his enlightenment, of his first sermon, and of his death, to the 84,000 accredited to Aśoka.
stūpas and images.
Pagodas and temples.
To smear, rub on.
To anoint the hand, or cut it off, instances of love and hatred.
A drum smeared with poison to destroy those who hear it.
Pāṃśupatas, perhaps Pāsupatas, followers of Śiva, Śaiva ascetics; a class of heretics who smeared themselves with ashes.
Oil rubbed on the feet to avoid disease.
To rub the body with incense or scent to worship Buddha.
A tomb, mound, cemetery; śmaśāna, v. 舍.
To stop up, block, gag; dull; honest; a barrier, frontier; translit. s.
(塞建陀羅); 塞健陀 skandha, ‘the shoulder’; ‘the body’; ‘the trunk of a tree’; ‘a section,’ etc. M.W. ‘Five psychological constituents.’ ‘Five attributes of every human being.’ Eitel. Commonly known as the five aggregates, constituents, or groups; the pañcaskandha; under the Han dynasty 陰 was used, under the Jin 衆, under the Tang 蘊. The five are: 色 rūpa, form, or sensuous quality; 受 vedana, reception, feeling, sensation; 想 sañjñā , thought, consciousness, perception; 行 karman, or saṃskāra, action, mental activity; 識 vijñāna, cognition. The last four are mental constituents of the ego. Skandha is also the name of an arhat, and Skanda, also 塞建那, of a deva.
spṛkka, clover, lucern.
svastika, v. 萬.
sphāṭika, crystal, quartz, one of the saptaratna, seven treasures.
To fill up.
Udayana, v. 優塡 king of Kauśāmbi.
A raised mound, a stūpa.
A bank, wall, entrenchment, dock; translit. u, for which many other characters are used, e.g. 烏; 憂; 于, etc.
The basis or condition laid 84,000 kalpas ago (by Mahābhijña-jñānābhibhū 大通智勝佛 in his teaching of the Lotus scriptures to 16 disciples who became incarnate as 16 Buddhas) for the subsequent teaching of the Lotus scriptures by Śākyamuni, the last of the 16 incarnations, to his disciples.
To settle, offer, condole.
To make an offering of tea to a Buddha, a spirit, etc.
To spread out; profuse; extravagant.
奢利弗多羅(or 奢利富多羅); 奢利補擔羅 v. 舍 Śāriputra.
奢弭 śamī, a leguminous tree associated with Śiva.
(or 奢摩陀); 舍摩他 śamatha, ‘quiet, tranquility, calmness of mind, absence of passion.’ M. W. Rest, peace, power to end (passion, etc.), one of the seven names for dhyāna.
Śākala, the ancient capital of Takka and (under Mihirakula) of the whole Punjab; the Sagala of Ptolemy; Eitel gives it as the present village of Sanga a few miles south-west of Amritsar, but this is doubtful.
舍薩擔羅; 設娑擔羅 śāstra, intp. by 論 treatise, q.v.
śāṭhya, knavery, fawning, crooked.
[奥] South-west corner where were the lares; retired, quiet; abstruse, mysterious; blended; warm; translit. au.
Esoteric commentary 奥疏.
aupayika, proper, fit, suitable.
Fraudulent, crafty, to cheat.
Like a moth flying into the lamp — is man after his pleasures.
To and fro, to roll: translit. bha, va.
Bhāvaviveka, a disciple of Nāgārjuna, who retired to a rock cavern to await the coming of Maitreya.
Varasena (the Aparasvin of the Zend-Avesta); a pass on the Paropamisus, now called Khawak, south of Indarab.
Vasudeva, in Brahmanic mythology the father of Kṛṣṇa.
Bhādrapada, the last month of summer.
mahāsattva, a great or noble being; the perfect bodhisattva, greater (mahā) than any other being (sattva) except a Buddha; v. 摩訶薩埵.
īrṣyā; envy of other’s possessions, jealousy.
Rich, wealthy, affluent, well supplied; translit. pu and ve sounds; cf. 不, 布, 補, 婆.
(富特伽羅) pudgala, that which has (handsome) form; body; soul; beings subject to metempsychosis. Cf. 弗, 補.
(or 富陀那) pūtana. A class of pretas in charge of fevers, v. 布.
(or 富留沙富羅) Puruṣapura, the ancient capital of Gandhara, the modern Peshawar, stated to be the native country of Vasubandhu.
puruṣa, v. 布; a man, mankind. Man personified as Nārāyaṇa; the soul and source of the universe; soul. Explained by 神我 the spiritual self; the ātman whose characteristic is thought, and which produces, through successive modifications, all forms of existence.
Pūrṇa; also富樓那彌多羅尼子 and other similar phonetic forms; Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra, or Maitrāyaṇīputra, a disciple of Śākyamuni, son of Bhava by a slave girl, often confounded with Maitreya. The chief preacher among the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni; ill-treated by his brother, engaged in business, saved his brothers from shipwreck by conquering Indra through samādhi; built a vihāra for Śākyamuni; expected to reappear as 法明如來 Dharmaprabhāsa Buddha.
Puṣya. An ancient ṛṣi. A constellation, v. 弗.
A translit. for a short-legged, or ornamented boot, as 富維跋陀羅 is boot or shoe ornamentation. 富羅 is also intp. as land, country; perhaps pura, a city.
Purāṇas. A class of Brahmanic mythological literature; also 布剌拏 (or 補剌拏).
布剌拏 (or布剌那, 晡剌拏, 晡剌那, 棓剌拏, 棓剌那); 不蘭; 補剌那, etc. Purāṇa Kāśyapa; one of the six heretics opposed by Śākyamuni; he taught the non-existence of all things, that all was illusion, and that there was neither birth nor death; ergo, neither prince nor subject, parent nor child, nor their duties.
Purandara; stronghold-breaker, fortress-destroyer, a name for Indra as thunder-god.
Puṇya; Punar; Pūrṇa.
Name of a preta, or hungry ghost; and of a monk named Pūrṇeccha .
Punarvasu; an asterism, i. e. the 弗宿; name of a monk.
Puṇyayaśas; 富那奢 (富那夜奢) the tenth (or eleventh) patriarch; a descendant of the Gautama family; born in Pāṭaliputra, laboured in Vārāṇasī and converted Aśvaghoṣa.
Pūrṇabhadra, name of a spirit-general.
śīta. Cold; in poverty; plain.
Cold and heat.
The cold forest, where the dead were exposed (to be devoured by vultures, etc.); a cemetery; v. 尸 for śītavana and śmaśāna.
The cold hells, v. 地獄.
To dwell, lodge; appertain, belong to, resemble.
A branch sect; one school appertaining to another.
Semblance money, i.e. paper money.
To honour. ārya; honoured, honourable.
Honoured and victorious, the honoured victorious one, one of the five 佛頂, also known as 除障佛頂, one of the divinities of the Yoga school.
A monk honoured and advanced in years.
The honourable commands, Buddha’s teaching.
ārya, honourable one, a sage, a saint, an arhat.
The prediction of Buddhahood to his disciples by the Honoured One; the honourable prediction.
尊重 Honoured, honourable; to honour.
To seek; investigate; to continue; usually; a fathom, 8 Chinese feet.
vitarka and vicāra, two conditions in dhyāna discovery and analysis of principles; vitarka 毘擔迦 a dharma which tends to increase, and vicāra 毘遮羅one which tends to diminish, definiteness and clearness in the stream of consciousness; cf. 中間定.
Normal or ordinary worship of Buddha, in contrast with special occasions.
To butcher, kill; a butcher.
Butcher and huckster; caṇḍāla is ‘the generic name for a man of the lowest and most despised of the mixed tribes’. M. W.
Mountain mist; vapour.
Lumbinī, the park in which Māyā gave birth to Śākyamuni, 15 miles east of Kapilavastu; also Limbinī, Lambinī, Lavinī. 嵐鞞尼; 藍毘尼 (or 留毘尼, 流毘尼, 林毘尼, 樓毘尼); 流彌尼; 林微尼; 臘伐尼; 龍彌你; 論民尼; 藍軬尼.
Irregular, uneven; translit. jha.
Parīttābha, the fourth brahmaloka, the first region of the second dhyāna.
An early attempt to translate the name of Guanyin. 廅樓亙.
(廅波) Apramāṇābha, the heaven of infinite light, the second region of the second dhyāna.
Strong, forceful, violent; to force; to strengthen.
The Ganges, v. 恒.
Having caught the fish, the trap may be forgotten, i.e. it is of secondary importance; also ingratitude.
sarvatraga. On every side, ambit, everywhere, universal, pervade, all, the whole.
Pervading everywhere, omnipresent, an epithet for Vairocana.
Universally auspicious, a tr. of 普賢 Samantabhadra.
To complete wholly, fulfil in every detail.
Universally shining, everywhere illuminating.
The whole universe.
sarvatragahetu, ‘omnipresent causes, like false views which affect every act.’ Keith.
The omniscience, absolute enlightenment, or universal awareness of a Buddha.
parakalpita. Counting everything as real, the way of the unenlightened.
The nature of the unenlightened, holding to the tenet that everything is calculable or reliable, i.e. is what it appears to be.
Again, return, revert, reply.
To live again, return to life.
To return to ordinary garments, i.e. to doff the robe for lay life.
To follow accord with, according to.
pradakṣina; moving round so that the right shoulder is towards the object of reverence.
The meditation which observes the body in detail and considers its filthiness.
sūkṣma. Minute, small, slight; abstruse, subtle; disguised; not; used in the sense of a molecule seven times larger than 極微 an atom; translit. vi, bi.
A molecule, v. above.
Numerous as molecules, or atoms; numberless.
Abstruse, recondite, mysterious.
Mysterious, secret, occult.
viśuddha, purified, pure.
Vibhārakṣita ? , a form of Tiṣyarakṣita, Aśoka’s queen.
Viṣṇu, also 毘瑟紐 (or 毘瑟笯 or 毘瑟怒); 毘紐; 毘搜紐 (or 毘痩紐); 韋紐; the second in the Trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva; the ‘preserver’, and all-pervading, or encompassing; identified with Nārāyaṇa-deva.
Minute, fine, refined, subtle.
A refined, subtle body.
A molecule, the smallest aggregation of atoms.
bījapūraka; a citron, citron medicus. M. W.
Minute, refined, or subtle action.
Vijayā, also 微惹耶; 毘社耶 the overcomer, Durgā, intp. as the wife, or female manifestation, of Vairocana.
karuṇā; kṛpā. Sympathy, pity for another in distress and the desire to help him, sad.
A heart of pity, of sympathy, or sadness.
A pitying hand.
Pity and wisdom; the two characteristics of a bodhisattva seeking to attain perfect enlightenment and the salvation of all beings. In the esoteric sects pity is represented by the Garbadhātu or the womb treasury, while wisdom is represented by the Vajradhātu, the diamond treasury. Pity is typified by Guanyin, wisdom by Mahāsthāmaprāpta, the two associates of Amitābha.
Infinite pity for all.
The field of pity, cultivated by helping those in trouble, one of the three fields of blessing.
The pitying contemplation for saving beings from suffering, and the merciful contemplation for giving joy to all beings.
The great pitying vow of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to save all beings.
The boat of this vow for ferrying beings to salvation.
Depressed, oppressed, sad, melancholy; to cover, shut down, or in.
moha. Illusion, delusion, doubt, unbelief; it is also used for kleśa, passion, temptation, distress, care, trouble.
A deluded person, to delude others.
The taint of delusion, the contamination of illusion.
Illusion, accordant action, and suffering; the pains arising from a life of illusion.
The bond of illusion, the delusive bondage of desire to its environment.
The way or direction of illusion, delusive objective, intp. as deluded in fundamental principles.
The hindrance, or obstruction of the delusive passions to entry into truth.
Kind, gracious, forbearing, accordant.
To show kindness to and benefit others.
agha. Bad, evil, wicked, hateful; to hate, dislike; translit. a, cf. 阿.
An evil world.
Evil doings; also to hate that which one has done, to repent.
akṣa, ‘a seed of which rosaries are made (in compound DICT_ENTRY_WORDs, like Indrāksha, Rudrāksha); a shrub producing that seed ( Eleocarpus ganitrus).’ M. W. It is called the 惡叉聚 because its seeds are said to be formed in triplets, and illustrate the simultaneous character of 惑行苦 illusion, action, and suffering; another version is that the seeds fall in clusters, and illustrate numbers, or numerous; they are also known as 金剛子.
To have evil ideas of the doctrine of voidness, to deny the doctrine of cause and effect.
Evil mouth, evil speech; a slanderous, evil-speaking person.
A cause of evil, or of a bad fate; an evil cause.
Recompense for ill, punishment.
(or 惡察羅) akṣara; imperishable, unalterable; a syllable; DICT_ENTRY_WORDs; intp. as unchanging DICT_ENTRY_WORD, a root DICT_ENTRY_WORD, or DICT_ENTRY_WORD-root. Also 惡刹羅; 阿乞史羅.
An evil teacher who teaches harmful doctrines.
Bad, or evil rules and customs.
aguru, lignum aloes, v. 沉水香.
Evil fruit from evil deeds.
Evil conduct in thought, DICT_ENTRY_WORD, or deed, which leads to evil recompense; evil karma.
That it is not wrong to do evil; that there are no consequences at attached to an evil life.
A scabby pariah, a phrase describing the evil of the mind.
A bad intimate, or friend, or teacher.