Từ Điển Thuật Ngữ Phật Học Hán Ngữ
Ten feet; an elder; a wife’s parents; a husband.
Ten feet; an elder; a wife’s parents; a husband.
Sixteen “feet”, the normal height of a Buddha in his “transformation body” 化 身 nirmāṇa-kāya; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth.
sixteen-foot diamond-body; also a metal or golden image of the Buddha 16 feet high mentioned in the 北史 Northern History.
A virile, zealous disciple, a man who presses forward unceasingly.
The country of virile men, Puruṣapura 富婁沙富羅, ancient capital of Gandhāra, the modern Peshawar; birthplace of 天親 Vasubandhu.
A firm-willed man, especially used of a bodhisattva who dauntlessly presses forward.
Tri, trayas; three.
The three misleading things: 貪 desire, 瞋 ire, and 邪 perverted views. M067874= 愆.
Trinity; also 31.
The twenty-one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking round the bo-tree and considering how to carry his Mahāyāna way of salvation to the world; v. 法華經,方便品.
(三三昧地) The three samādhis, or the samādhi on three subjects; 三三摩 (三三摩地); 三定, 三等持; 三空; 三治; 三解脫門; 三重三昧; 三重等持. There are two forms of such meditation, that of 有漏 reincarnational, or temporal, called 三三昧; and that of 無 漏 liberation, or nirvāṇa, called 三解脫. The three subjects and objects of the meditation are (1) 空 to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) 無相to get rid of the idea of form, or externals, i.e. the 十相 which are the five senses, and male and female, and the three 有; (3) 無願 to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed無作 and 無起. A more advanced meditation is called the Double Three Samādhi 重三三昧 in which each term is doubled 空空, 無相無相, 無願無願. The esoteric sect has also a group of its own.
This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three 不 are impure, not single, not constant; the three 信 are the opposite.
Three bad roots, or qualities — desire, anger, and stupidity 貪, 瞋, 痴, v. 三毒.
Three unstable things — the body, length of life, wealth.
The three never lost, idem 三不護.
The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk killed, or has doubt about it; v. 三淨肉.
The three that need no guarding i.e. the 三業 of a Buddha, his body, mouth (or lips), and mind, which he does not need to guard as they are above error.
The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursued, and in dhyāna.
The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三際.
The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas — of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa, the present 賢, and the future 星宿. Their names are variously given in several sutra, with a complete list in the 三手佛名經.
Everything past, present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting, and cannot be held; v. 三世心.
A Buddha’s perfect knowledge of past, present, and future.
The Buddhas of the past, present, and future, i.e. Kāsyapa, Śākyamuni, and Maitreya.
The reality or otherwise of things or events past, present, and future. Some Hīnayāna schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有and the future 當有. Others take different views, all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhāśā śāstra 婆沙論 77 or 俱舍論 20.
The Sarvāstivadah school maintains that as the three states (past, present, future) are real, so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real, matter is eternal.
Mind, or thought, past, present or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of.
One of a Tathāgata’s ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future.
The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments, past, present, and future. Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒.
A name for Mañjuśrī 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future.
There are two definitions: (1) The realms of 器 matter, of 衆生 life, and 智正覺 mind, especially the Buddha’s mind. (2) The 五陰 psychological realm (mind), 衆生 realm of life, and 國土 or 器material realm.
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples’ capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha’s way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.
The Dharmalakṣaṇa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the 法相宗.
The 三乘家 consider the Triyāna as real, and the “one vehicle” of the Lotus School as merely tactical, or an expedient form of expression.
(or 三事衣) A term for a monk’s robe of five, seven, or nine patches.
The three ṛṣis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. 迦毘羅 Kapila, founder of the Sāṁkhya philosophy; 鵂鶹 or 優樓佉 Ulūka or Kaṇāda, founder of the 勝論宗 or Vaiśeṣika philosophy; and 勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, founder of the Nirgranthas; with Śiva and Viṣṇu as the two deities.
Saṃvaji; the heretical people of Vṛji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south-east of Nepal. (Eitel.).
Trikāya, v. 三身. Also the三岐 or founders of the 楊岐 branch of the Chan (Zen) School, i.e. Huiqin 慧勤, Qingyuan 淸遠, and Keqin 克勤.
The three Buddha-lands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikāya; v. 三身 and 佛土.
All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds—the commonalty are 外子 external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, 小and 中 乘, are 庶子 secondary sons (i.e. of concubines); the bodhisattvas, i.e. mahāyānists) are 子 true sons, or sons in the truth.
The three kinds of Buddha-nature: (1) 自性住佛性 the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) 引出佛性 the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) 至得果佛性 the final or perfected Buddha-nature resulting from the development of the original potentiality.
saṃvṛti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas世俗諦 or phenomenal truth; it is also intp. as that which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming.
The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikāya, 三身, i.e. that under the bodhi tree, that of parinirvāṇa, that of tathāgatagarbha in its eternal nirvāṇa aspect.
The Buddha’s three modes of discourse—unqualifed, i.e. out of the fullness of his nature; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both.
saṃbuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment.
The three (divine) messengers—birth, sickness, death; v. 使. Also 三天使 .
The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these.
prajñāpti. The DICT_ENTRY_WORD 假 q.v. in Buddhist terminology means that everything is merely phenomenal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existeme, but all is empty and unreal, 虛妄不實. The three 假 are 法 things, 受 sensations, and 名 names.
三攝提The three fallacious postulates in regard to 法, 受, and 名.
The meditations on the three false assumptions 三假.
The three half-true, or partial revelations of the 小乘, 中乘 and 大乘, and the true one of the Lotus Sūtra.
(三光天) Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyāna of the form-world there are the two deva regions 少光天, 無量光天, and 光音天q.v. Also 觀音 Avalokiteśvara is styled 日天子sun-prince, or divine son of the sun, 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprapta is styled 月天子 divine son of the moon, and 虛空藏菩薩 the bodhisattva of the empyrean, is styled 明星天子 divine son of the bright stars.
The eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days of a moon.
Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hīnayāna.
An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together.
The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer.
The three divisions of a treatise on a sūtra, i. e. 序分introduction, 正宗分discussion of the subject, 流通分application.
The three powers, of which there are various groups: (1) (a) personal power; (6) tathāgata-power; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medicine (for evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailment; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha; (b) of samādhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit.
The triple-power verse: 以我功德力 In the power of my virtue, 如來加持力. And the aiding power of the Tathāgata, 及與法界力 And the power of the spiritual realm, 周遍衆生界 I can go anywhere in the land of the living.
The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhātu or Diamond-realm maṇḍala.
The four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in one all hold the diamond-realm symbol, the vajra; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present, future; in another, the Guanyin symbol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space.
三十七分法, 三十七菩提分法, 三十七品 The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, or Buddhahood, i. e. 四念處 smṛtyupasthāna, four states of memory, or subjects of reflection; 四正勤 samyakprahāṇa, four proper lines of exertion; 四如意足 ṛddhipāda, four steps towards supernatural power; 五根 pañca indriyāṇi, five spiritual faculties; 五力pañca balāni, their five powers; 七覺支 sapta bodhyaṅga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or intelligence; and 八正道 aṣṭa-mārga, the eightfold noble path.
(三十六部神) The thirty-six departmental guardian divinities given in the 灌頂三歸五戒帶佩護身咒經. Each is styled 彌栗頭 mṛdu, benign, kindly, for which 善 is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese as follows: (1) 不羅婆 or 善光 kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) 婆呵婆 or 善明 headaches; (3) 婆邏婆 or 善力 fevers; (4) 抗陀羅 or 善月 disorders of the stomach; (5) 陀利奢 or 善見 tumours; (6) 阿婁呵 or 善供 madness; (7) 伽婆帝 or 善捨 stupidity; (8) 悉抵哆 or 善寂 irascibility; (9) 菩堤薩 or善覺 lust; (10) 提婆羅 or 善天 devils; (11) 阿婆帝 or 善住 deadly injuries; (12) 不若羅 of 善福 graves; (13) 苾闍伽 or 善術 the four quarters; (14) 迦隸婆 or 善帝 enemies; (15) 羅闍遮 or 善主 robbers; (16) 須乾陀 or 善香 creditors; (17) 檀那波 or 善施 thieves; (18) 支多那 or 善意 pestilence; (19) 羅婆那 or 善吉 the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) 鉢婆馱 or 善山 corpse worms; (21) 三摩提 or 善調 continuous concentration; (22) 戾禘馱 or 善備 restlessness; (23) 波利陀 or 善敬 attraction; (24) 波利那 or 善淨 evil cabals; (25) 度伽地 or 善品 deadly poison; (26) 毘梨馱 or 善結 fear; (27) 支陀那 or 善壽 calamities; (28) 伽林摩 or 善逝 childbirth and nursing; (29) 阿留伽 or 善願 the district magistracy; (30) 闍利馱 or 善固 altercations; (31) 阿伽駄 or 善照 anxieties and distresses; (32) 阿訶婆 or 善生 uneasiness; (33) 婆和邏 or 善思 supernatural manifestations; (34) 波利那 or 善藏 jealousy; (35) 固陀那 or 善音 curses; (36) 韋陀羅 or 善妙 exorcism. They have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear.
In each of the 十地 ten states there are three conditions, 入, 住, 出, entry, stay, exit, hence the ‘thirty lives’.
trisahasra, three thousand; a term used by the Tiantai School for 一切諸法, i. e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld; v. 三千大千世界.
The kalpa of the ancient Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū (大通智; 勝佛), mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, i. e. a kalpa of incalculable antiquity, e. g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chiliocosm which has been ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by drop, at vast distances throughout boundless space.
tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu, a great chiliocosm; 三千; 三千界, 三千世界. Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world.
A bhikṣu’s regulations amount to about 250; these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1, 000; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3, 000 regulations.
The sūtra of the three thousand regulations.
The reality at the basis of all things, a Tiantai doctrine, i. e. the 眞如 or 法性 idem 諸法實相.
The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3, 000 years; v. 優.
The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 ultimate reality, q. v. Also 三法印.
The three vehicles (Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna) are one, i. e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all.
The three states of Vedanā, i. e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both 苦, 樂, 捨. When things are opposed to desire, pain arises; when accordant, there is pleasure and a desire for their continuance; when neither, one is detached or free. 倶舍論 1.
The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both.
Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence.
The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation.
The union of the three, i.e. 根 indriya, 境 ālambana, and 識 vijñāna, i.e. organ, object, and cognition.
The general meaning is 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, inferior.
The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. They are 上 superior, to be born in the 密嚴國 Vairocana Pure-land; 中 in one of the other Pure-lands among which is the Western Paradise; and 下 in the 修羅宮 Sun Palaces among the devas. Also styled 三品成就.
The three grades of śrāmaṇera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled 駈鳥沙彌; 14-19 應法沙彌; and 20 and upwards 名字沙彌.
The three grades of hearers, i.e. 上 with the 神 spirit; 中 with the 心 mind; 下 with the 耳 ear.
idem 三時敎 and 三善根.
The three good “roots”, the foundation of all moral development, i.e. 無貪, 無瞋, 無痴 no lust (or selfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also, 施, 慈, 慧 giving, kindness, moral wisdom; v. 三毒 the three poisons for which these are a cure.
The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), a fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dānapati).
(or 三善趣) The three good or upward directions or states of existence: 天 the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life, or heaven; 人 the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; 阿修羅 the inferior class of goodness with the asura state. Cf. 三惡道; v. 智度論 30.
The six “causes” of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g. lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識.
The three causes produce their three effects: (1) 異熟因異熟果 differently ripening causes produce differently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produces its developed effect, especially the effect of the present causes in the next transmigration; (2) 福因福報 blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) 智因智果 wisdom (now) produces wisdom-fruit (hereafter).
idem 四土 omitting 寂光土.
The three defilers—desire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance), idem 三毒.
The three sure or certain things are 身, 命 and 財, i.e. the reward of the true disciple is an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) possessions, 無極之身, 無窮之命, 無盡之財, v. 能摩經:菩薩品.
The three recompenses, i.e. 現報 in the present life for deeds now done; 生報 in the next rebirth for deeds now done; and 後報 in subsequent lives.
The 塗 mire is interpreted by 途 a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the asipattra hell of sDICT_ENTRY_WORDs, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged sDICT_ENTRY_WORDs. Cf. 三惡趣.
Much intercourse with good friends, much hearing of the Law, much meditation on the impure. Also, much worship, much service of good friends, much inquiry on important doctrines. There are other groups.
The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用.
Three authoritative works of the Tiantai School, i.e. the 玄義, 文句, and 止觀, each of ten juan.
The trimūrti— Śiva, Viṣṇu, and Brahmā.
v. 二天三仙 and add 鳩摩羅 Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrahtha, son of Jñātṛ, i.e. of the Jñātṛ clan.
Three repetitions (of a verse).
A muni, recluse, or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind 身, 口, 意. Also 三牟尼.
The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and competent; one unfilial stupid, and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchahtikas, 涅槃經 33.
The “three characters”, a term for 阿彌陀 Amitābha.
The “three seasons” of an Indian year— spring, summer, and winter; a year.
The “three studies” or vehicles of learning— discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) 戒學 learning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth, body, or mind, i.e. DICT_ENTRY_WORD, deed, or thought; (b) 定學 learning by dhyāna, or quietist meditation; (c) 慧學 learning by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiṭaka; the 戒 being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經 sūtras, and the to the 論 śāstras.
The three months of summer retreat, varṣāḥ; v. 跋.
The three Schools of 法相宗, 破相宗 , and 法性宗 q.v., representing the ideas of 空, 假, and 不空假, i.e. unreality, temporary reality, and neither; or absolute, relative, and neither.
The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e. voice), and mind of the Tathāgata, which are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sound this mystic voice, and all thought this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind are only individualized parts of the Tathāgata, but illusion hides their Tathāgata nature from them. The esoterics seek to realize their Tathāgata nature by physical signs and postures, by voicing of 眞言 dhāraṇī and by meditations, so that 入我我入 He may enter me and I Him, which is the perfection of siddhi 悉地; v. 大日經疏 1. 菩提心論.
The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is associated with earth, water, and fire; the mystic DICT_ENTRY_WORDs with wind and space; the mystic mind with 識 cognition.
v. 三彌底 sammitīyanikāya.
The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind, of the Tathāgata are identical with those of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dharmakāya, or body of Buddha: 父母所生之肉身卽爲佛身也.
Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel “existing in reflex in the world of forms”, and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi Dhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī Buddha DharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāya PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetra ArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.
The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha— temples and images, etc.; to the dharma— the scriptures; to the saṅgha— cassock, bowl, etc.
The tritratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the tripiṭaka, sūtras 經 vinaya 律, abhidharma 論; also śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas.
The three honoured ones: Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or Order. Others are: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta, who, according to the Pure-land sect, come to welcome the dying invoker. Another group is Bhaiṣajya, Vairocana, and Candraprabha; and another, Śākyamunī, Mañjuśrī, and Samantabhadra.
The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta. Though bodhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitābha.
Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, receive into the western paradise the believer who calls on Amitābha.
The thrice repeated procession around an image; there is dispute as to which shoulder should be next to the image, v. 右繞.
The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.
The esoteric doctrine that the three— body, mouth, and mind— are one and universal. Thus in samādhi the Buddha “body” is found everywhere and in everything (pan-Buddha), every sound becomes a “true DICT_ENTRY_WORD”, dhāraṇī or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind, which being universal is my mind and my mind it, 入我我入 it in me and I in it. Other definitions of the three are 佛, 法, 儈 the triratna; and 心, 佛, 衆生 mind, Buddha, and the living. Also 三三昧. Cf. 三密. v. 大日經 1.
The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by 空, 無相, and 無願; v. 三三昧地.
idem 三昧耶戒 and 世無障礙智戒.
The three equal essentials of the fire sacrifice, i.e. the individual as offerer, the object of worship, and the altar.
Samīkṣā, 觀察 investigation, i.e. the Sāṃkhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascribed by Buddhists to 闍提首那 Jātisena, or 闍耶犀那 Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Sāṃkhya principles (tattvas) with Śākyamuni but succumbed, shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 涅槃經 39.
彌底; 彌離底; 三密 (or 蜜) 栗底尼迦耶; 三眉底與量弟子 Saṃmatīyanikāya, Saṃmata, or Saṃmitīyas. A Hīnayāna sect the 正量部 correctly commensurate or logical school, very numerous and widely spread during the early centuries of our era. The 三彌底部論 is in the Tripiṭaka. It taught “that a soul exists in the highest and truest sense”, “that an arhat can fall from arhatship, that a god can enter the paths of the Order, and that even an unconverted man can get rid of all lust and ill-will” (Eliot, i, 260). It split into the three branches of Kaurukullakāḥ Āvantikāh, and Vātsīputrīyāḥ.
Saṃmiti is a saint mentioned in the 阿含經.
A woman’s three subordinations, to father, husband, and son; stated in several sūtras, e.g. 四十華嚴經28.
The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha’s eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.
The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one’s merits to others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups.
The tree forms of kṣānti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. 無量壽經. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitābha, patience in meditation on his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of submission, of faith, and of obedience.
(or 三念處). Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part do not believe, the Buddha neither rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-seeing wisdom 正念正智 keeps him above the disturbances of joy and sorrow. 倶舍論 27.
All action and speech have three mental conditions— reflection, judgment, decision.
The three types of character 善, 惡, 無記 good, bad and undefinable, or neutral; v. 唯識論 5. Also, 徧依圓三性 the three aspects of the nature of a thing— partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, etc., are all considered.
The differentiation of the three conditions of good, evil, and neutral.
A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.
The three evil gati, or paths of transmigration; also 三惡道, 三惡趣 the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.
The three evil mental states: 欲 desire, 瞋 hate (or anger), 害 malevolence.
The three evil thoughts are the last, desire, hate, malevolence; the three good thoughts are 怨想 thoughts of (love to) enemies, 親想 the same to family and friends, 中人想 the same to those who are neither enemies nor friends, i.e. to all; v. 智度論 72.
Samudra, the sea, an ocean; also 三母捺羅娑誐羅 samudra-sāgara. Samudra and sāgara are synonyms.
The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: 聞慧 from reading, hearing, instruction; 思慧 from reflection, etc.; 修慧 from practice (of abstract meditation).
The 300,000 families of Śrāvastī city who had never heard of the Buddha’s epiphany— though he was often among them.
The three who should be served, or worshipped— a Buddha, an arhat, and a cakravartī king.
The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity.
Sama, level, equal, same, etc.; cf. 三昧 (三昧耶) and 平等.
samāpanna, in the state of samādhi.
samāhita; steadfast, tranquil. A degree of meditation.
Samataṭa, an ancient kingdom on the left bank of the Ganges, near its mouths, extending to the Hooghly, over 3,000 li in circuit, low and damp, with a hardy people, short and dark. Eitel says “close to the sea at the mouth of the Brahmaputra.” Eliot says: “In the east of Bengal and not far from the modern Burmese frontier.”
(or 三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底) Samādhi; idem 三昧.
Silent or meditative repetition of the name of Buddha.
Samāsa. 煞三摩婆 Ṣaṭ-samāsa, v. 六離合釋.
Samavāya, coming together, combination; 利合 advantageous union.
縒摩吠陀; 沙磨; 平論; 歌詠 Sāma-veda-saṃhitā. A collection of verses sung at sacrifices, etc. The third of the three Vedas, or four if Atharva Veda is counted, as it was later; the verses are taken almost wholly from the Ṛgveda.
Sumāgadhā, said to be a daughter of Anāthapiṇḍada of Śrāvastī, who married the ruler of 難國 and converted the ruler and people.
(or 三摩曳) idem 三昧耶; but 三摩耶 is also explained as a short period, a season of the year.
A term among the esoterics for the 三平等 q.v.
sāmānya, generality; in common; inclusive; v. 共.
The public gathering for a festival, lay and cleric, before parting at the end of the summer retreat.
(or 三摩鉢提); 三摩拔提 (or 三摩跋提); 三摩越 samāpatti, attainment, arrival; defined by 等至 and 等持 which is intp. as complete dhyāna; similar to 三摩半那 samāpanna, attainment. Eitel says: “a degree of abstract ecstatic meditation preparatory to the final attainment of samādhi.” Clough speaks of eight samāpattis, i.e. attainments— “eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation.” v. also 三摩越.
samanantaram, immediately following or contiguous; 等無間緣緣 i.e. one of the four 緣q.v.; it means without interval, i.e. an immediate cause.
three prajñapti, v. 三假施設; they are the 受 and 法 and 名假施設.
(三支比量) Three members of a syllogism: pratijñā宗 the proposition, hetu 因 the reason, udāharaṇa 喩the example; cf. 因明.
The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni’s own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.
Master of the Tripiṭaka; a title of Xuanzang 玄奘.
The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat.
A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (speech), and mind, their control, and the entry into the 三密 q.v. 大日經疏 1.
The three forms of giving: (1) (a) one’s goods; (b) the Law or Truth; (c) courage, or confidence: 智度論 11. (2) (a) goods; (b) worship; (c) preaching. (3) (a) food; (b) valuables; (c) life.
The third day’s ceremonies after a death to gain Yama’s favour as the deceased appears before him.
The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16.
trividyā. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is impermanent 無常 anitya; (2) all is sorrowful 苦 duḥkha; (3) all is devoid of a self 無我 anātman.
(三昧地) Samādhi, “putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation.” (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.
Samādhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the 華嚴經.
月輪三昧 The candra-maṇḍala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc samādhi; Nāgārjuna is said to have entered it and taken his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kāṇadeva.
Fire of samādhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirvāṇa.
The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image.
samaya is variously defined as 會 coming together, meeting, convention; 時 timely; 宗 in agreement, of the same class; 平等 equal, equalized; 驚覺 aroused, warned; 除垢障 riddance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva.
The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Guanyin; also used for 三昧耶身 q. v.
samaya commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects.
samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha’s or bodhisattva’s wisdom, as shown in the maṇḍala.
samaya-maṇḍala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sDICT_ENTRY_WORD.
The samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine maṇḍalas, consisting of seventy-three saints represented by the symbols of their power.
Samaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect.
(or 三昧耶形) The embodiment of samaya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stūpa as one of the symbols of Vairocana 大日; the lotus of Guanyin, etc. 身 is used for Buddha, 形 for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the 報身 saṃbhogakāya.
The different stages of a bodhisattva’s samādhi; cf. 智度論 28.
samādhi-māra, one of the ten māras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom.
The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening; also the three periods, after his nirvāṇa, of every Buddha’s teaching, viz., 正 correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, 像 semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and 末 end, the period of decline and termination.
The thrice a day meditation— about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m.
The three periods of Buddhism— 1,000 years of 正法 pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of 像法 resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of 末法 decay. Other definitions are 正 and 像 500 years each, or 正 1,000 and 像 500, or 正 500 and 像 1,000.
i.e. 徧依圓三性 v. 三性.
(三時教判) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha’s teaching, as defined by the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗. They are: (1) 有, when he taught the 實有 reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in 實我 real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four 阿含經 āgamas and other Hīnayāna sūtras. (2) 空 Śūnya, when he negatived the idea of 實法 the reality of things and advocated that all was 空 unreal; the period of the 般若經 prajñā sūtras. (3) 中 Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school’s specific sūtra the 解深密經, also the 法華 and later sūtras. In the two earlier periods he is said to have 方便 adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the 空宗 is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahāyāna represented, by the 深密經; (3) the higher Mahāyāna as in the 般若經. v. also 三敎.
The three stages of karma— in the present life because of present deeds; in the next life because of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions.
The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.
God of the wind, which is Vata in Sanskrit.
samanta; tr. by 等, 普, 遍 universal, everywhere; also 三曼陀, 三滿多.
(or 三萬陀犍陀, or 三曼陀犍提) Samantagandha, 普熏 universally fragrant. A tree in Paradise; a title of a Buddha.
三曼颰陀, 三曼跋陀 Samantabhadra, 普賢 Puxian; v. 三滿.
The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ‘ substantial resistance’; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana.
sammata, intp. as 共許 ‘unanimously accorded’; i. e. name of the first king (elected) at the beginning of each world-kalpa.
The third of the Hīnayāna 四果 four fruits or results, i. e. non-return to mortality.
The three tree-trunks, or main stems—desire, hate, stupidity; v. 三毒.
The three (evil) ‘roots’— desire, hate, stupidity, idem 三毒. Another group is the three grades of good roots, or abilities 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness 三無漏根.
Under three rafters—the regulation space for a monk’s bed or seat; in meditation.
The three Brahma heavens of the first dhyāna: that of 梵衆 Brahma-pāriṣadya, the assembly of Brahma; 梵輔 Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; 大梵 Mahābrahmā, Great Brahma.
trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, DICT_ENTRY_WORD, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three.
三業相應 To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind; the second form means that in worship an three correspond.
The three smallest things, i. e. an atom as the smallest particle of matter; a letter as the shortest possible name; a kṣaṇa, as the shortest period of time.
The three joys— the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana.
The three kinds of dāna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem 三施.
The Tiantai division of the schools of Buddhism into four, three termed 權temporary, i. e. 藏, 通 and 別 q.v. v. e fourth is the 實 or圓real or perfect School of SaIvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as revealed in the Lotus Sutra, see 一實.
three lusts, i. e. for 形貌 form, 姿態 carriage or beauty, and 細觸refinement, or softness to the touch.
The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism: 太武 of the Wei dynasty A.D. 424-452; 武帝 of the Zhou A.D. 561-578; 武宗 of the Tang A.D. 841-7.
Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or “formulas of refuge” in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法 Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is “the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists”. The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友. These are known as the 三歸依.
(三歸戒) The ceremony which makes the recipient a 優婆塞 or 優婆夷 upasaka or upāsikā male or female disciple, accepting the five commandments. There are 五種三歸 five stages of sangui; the first two are as above, at the third the eight commandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth an the commandments. 三歸 is also a general term for a Buddhist.
The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the three refuges 三歸.
The three poisons, also styled 三根; 三株; they are 貪 concupiscence, or wrong desire, 瞋 anger, hate, or resentment, and 痴 stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 智度論 19, 31.
The Śrī (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Mañjuśrī.
idem 三三昧門 v. 三解脫.
The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha’s teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa.
idem 三無差別 q.v.
The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha’s preaching, according to Paramārtha, to 嘉祥 Jiaxiang of the 三論 school, and to 玄奘 Xuanzang of the 法相 school.
samāpta; finished, ended, perfect; a term used at the conclusion of Homa or Fire-worship.
The three prajñāpti, 三假 q.v.
Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper Punjab; but perhaps Śāmbī, a state north of Citral in the Hindukush.
The three gates to the city of nirvāṇa, i.e. 空, 無相, and 無作 the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem 三解脫門.
The three kinds of “clean” flesh—when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.
Samantabhadra, interpreted 普賢 Puxian, pervading goodness, or “all gracious”, Eliot; also 徧吉 universal fortune; also styled Viśvabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Emei shan. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Sūtra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. 三曼.
The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: 欲 desire; 有 (material, or phenomenal) existence; 無明 ignorance (of the way of escape). 涅槃經 22.
The three progressive developments of the Buddha’s teaching according to the Prajñā school: (a) the 鹿苑 initial stage in the Lumbinī deer park; (b) the 方等 period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the 般若 Prajñā or wisdom period which succeeded.
The three fires—desire, hate, and stupidity; v. 三毒.
The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearing during a decadent world-period, are sDICT_ENTRY_WORD, pestilence, and famine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. 倶舍諭 12.
The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature: (a) 心 The nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) 佛 the nature and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same; (c) 衆生 the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same. The 華嚴經 says 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別.
The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) 相無性 form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) 生無性 life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials; (c) 勝義無性 the 勝義, concept of the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā, is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is made; the bhūtatathatā is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal. The three are also known as 相無性, 無自然性, 法無性; v. 唯識論 9.
The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) 戒 Moral discipline; (b) 定 meditation, or trance; (c) 慧 the resulting wisdom.
The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from transmigration, i.e. the last three of the 二十二根 q.v. An older group was 未知欲知根; 知根; 如巳根 v. 倶舍論 3. 智度論 23.
The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the 身, 口, 意, deeds, DICT_ENTRY_WORDs, and thoughts of a Buddha.
The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Tiantai teaching of the Huayan sūtra, the Buddha’s doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Huayan sūtra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhisattvas; (b) second, the Hīnayāna sūtras in general to śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbinī garden; (c) third, the 方等 sūtras down to the 涅槃經 for all the living. See the 六十華嚴經 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, lay disciples, and all creatures.
three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid— fiery heat, fierce wind, and the garuḍa bird which preys on them for food.
samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the 聚 or 集諦, i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering.
The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth.
The three animals— hare, horse, elephant— crossing a stream. The śrāvaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse who crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyāna. 涅槃經 23, 27.
The three sweet things— cream, honey, curd.
The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.
The three “fields” of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, onefold. 涅槃經 33.
Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four “empty” regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four “formless” realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.
The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of the 華嚴 sūtra; it proceeds 心外無別法, 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 “outside mind there is no other thing; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different”; in other DICT_ENTRY_WORDs, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind.
The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha.
The kindly father of the triple world— Buddha.
The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Sūtra parable.
The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering.
The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal escape.
The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to “all souls”, v. 孟蘭.
The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational.
The hero of the trailokya—Buddha.
The three doubts— of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.
The three ailments: (1) (a) 貪 lust, for which the 不淨觀 meditation on uncleanness is the remedy; (b) 瞋 anger, or hate, remedy 慈悲觀 meditation on kindness and pity; (c) 癡 stupidity, or ignorance, remedy 因緣觀 meditation on causality. (2) (a) 謗 Slander of Mahāyāna; (b) 五逆罪 the five gross sins; (c) to be a “heathen” or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. 三毒.
The three resolves of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (a) 信成就發心 to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) 解行發心 to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) 證發心 the realization, or proof of or union with bodhi.
is the rule of the three white foods 三白食.
The three white foods— milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice).
The reputed and disputed number (360) of Śākyamuni’s assemblies for preaching.
(or 三百四十八戒) The 341 (or 348) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.
(or 三百四十一戒) The 348 (or 341) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.
The 300 yojanas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared that his people would become weary and return; i.e. Hīnayāna nirvāṇa, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true nirvāṇa; v. 法華化城品.
The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation.
The three forms or positions: 解脫相 nirvāṇa; 離相 no nirvāṇa; 滅和 or 非有非無之中道 absence of both, or the “middle way” of neither.
The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes.
Saṃmatiīya, v. 三彌底.
Three aspects of the bhūtatathatā, implying that it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul. (1) (a) 無相眞如 without form; (b) 無生眞如 without creation; (c) 無性眞如 without anything that can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) 善法眞如 The bhūtatathatā as good; (b) 不善法眞如 as evil; (c) 無記法眞如 as neutral, or neither good nor evil.
The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for 身, 口, and 意; i.e. the symbol; the mystic DICT_ENTRY_WORD or sound; the meditation of the mind.
A term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image.
(三祗百大劫) The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three asaṃkhyeyas 阿僧祗 to attain the 六度, and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two 相 or characteristic marks of a Buddha; cf. 三阿.
The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The 無量壽經 has the felicity of (a) 世福 filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 戒福 of keeping the other commandments; (c) 行福 of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 倶舍論 18, has the blessedness of (a) 施類福 almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) 戒類福 observance of the 性戒 (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 遮戒 (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) 修類福 observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. 三種淨業.
The three things that bring a happy lot— almsgiving, impartial kindness and Iove, pondering over the demands of the life beyond.
The third dhyāna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form.
Worship with 身, 口, 意, body, mouth, and mind.
The three categories of 五蘊, 十二處 or 入, and eighteen 界.
Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.
Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to 道理, 神通, and 唯識.
The three types of meditation on the principles of the 三諦 q.v., i.e. the dogmas of 空, 假, 中.
Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.; (b) of praise and reverence; (c) of right conduct.
The three kinds of light: (a) extemal— sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddhas, bodhisattvas, devas.
The three kinds of good roots— almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom.
Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) 事理 phenomena with “substance”, e.g. waves and the water; (b) 事事 phenomena with phenomena, e.g. wave with wave; (c) 理理 substance with substance, e.g. water with water.
The three kinds of hells— hot, cold and solitary.
The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) unacquired and natural; (c) universal.
Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Buddha-land.
A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) 本性常 in his nature or dharmakāya; (b) 不斷常 in his unbroken eternity, saṃbhogakāya; (c) 相續常 in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmāṇakāya.
The three kinds of mental distress: desire, anger, stupidity, idem 三毒.
Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind.
(or 三種懺法) Three modes of repentance: (a) 無生悔 to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (b) 取相悔 to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c) 作法懺 in proper form to confess one’s breach of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission.
(or 三種緣慈) The three reasons of bodhisattva’s pity — because all beings are like helpless infants; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature.
The three modes of the Buddha’s teaching of the Southern Sects: 頓 immediate, 漸 gradual or progressive, and 不定 indeterminate.
The three kinds of uccheda— cutting-off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) 自性斷 with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) 不生斷 with realization of the doctrine that all is 空 unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) 緣縛斷 illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three śrāvaka or ascetic stages are (a) 見所斷 ending the condition of false views; (b) 修行斷 getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) 非所斷 no more illusion or desire to be cut off.
The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism; i.e. (a) 世間智 normal, worldly knowledge or ideas; (b) 出世間智 other worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hīnayāna; (c) 出世間上上智 the highest other-worldly wisdom, of Mahāyāna; cf. 三種波羅蜜.
Three kinds of existence: (a) 相待有 that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and shortness; (b) 假名有 that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) 法有 that of the noumenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a “hare’s horns” or a “turtle’s fur”.
Three kinds of desire— food, sleep, sex.
Three Tiantai modes of entering dhyāna: (a) 漸次 gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) 不定 irregular, simple, and complex mixed; (c) 圓頓 immediate and whole.
The three kinds of pāramitā ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) 世間波羅蜜 that of people in general relating to this world; (b) 出世間波羅蜜 that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to the future life for themselves; (c) 出世間上上波羅蜜 the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the future life for all; cf. 三種智.
The threefold way of obtaining pure karma, idem 三福.
The three purities of a bodhisattva— a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance 相 perfectly pure and adorned.
Three kinds of baptism: (1) (a) 摩頂灌頂 Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his head; (b) 授記灌頂 by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) 放光灌頂 by revealing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic DICT_ENTRY_WORD; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life.
The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) 想生 the mind, or active thought; (b) 相生 the objective world; (c) 流注生 their constant interaction, or the continuous stream of latent predispositions.
The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) 標相 inferential, as fire is inferred from smoke; (b) 形相 formal or spatial, as length, breadth, etc.; (c) 體相 qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) 假名相 names, which are merely indications of the temporal; (b) 法相 dharmas, or “things”; (c) 無相相 the formless— all three are incorrect positions.
Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. 身 physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; 意 mentally, through powers of memory and enlightenment; 口 orally, by moral exhortation.
Three kinds of rūpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality.
Three classes of delusive views, or illusions — those common to humanity; those of the inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind.
The Tiantai School has a definition of 色身 the physical body of the Buddha; 法門身 his psychological body with its vast variety; 實相身 his real body, or dharmakāya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikāya to each of its honoured ones. v. 三身.
The three duḥkha or afflictions of the body — old age, sickness, death.
The three kinds of icchantika: (a) 一闡提迦 the wicked; (b) 阿闡提迦 called 大悲闡提 bodhisattvas who become icchantika to save all beings; (c) 阿顚底迦 otherwise 無性闡提 those without a nature for final nirvāṇa. Cf. 三病.
Three kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower.
The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) 空, (b) 無相, (c) 無願, v. 三三昧. The second, (a) 我空 , (b) 法空 , (c) 倶空 the self, things, all phenomena as “empty” or immaterial. The third relates to charity: (a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are “empty”.
(三空觀門) idem 三解脫門.
The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathāgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his 身 body, (b) 語 discourse, (c) 意 mind. (2) (a) his life or works 修行; (b) spiritual body 法身; (c) salvation 度生; in their equal values and universality.
Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. 眞等流 the certain consequences that follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; 假等流 the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life’s ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life; 分位等流 each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind.
The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two.
idem 三藏 tripiṭaka.
The three auras of earth, of the animate, and of the inanimate invoked against demon influences.
The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the 六麤 cruder or common concepts, in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The three are 無明業相 “ignorance”, or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; 能見相 ability to perceive phenomena; perceptive faculties; 境界相 the object perceived, or the empirical world. The first is associated with the 體corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves. v. 六麤.
The three ties: (a) 見結 , the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego; (b) 戒取結 of discipline; (c) 疑結 of doubt. The three are also parts of見惑 used for it.
The three sūtras and one śāstra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching: 佛說無量壽經; 佛說觀無量壽經; 佛說阿彌陀經; 天親淨土論.
The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) 上座 sthavira, elder, president; (b) 寺主vihārasvāmin, v. 毘 the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) 維那 karmadāna, v. 羯 who directs the monks. Another meaning: (a) 上座; (b) 維那; (c) 典座 vihārapāla, v. 毘director of worship. The three vary in different countries.
The three nidānas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land sect: (a) 親緣 that he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them; (b) 近緣 that he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (c) 增上緣 that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death.
The three bonds— desire, anger, stupidity; idem 三毒.
The three things that work for punishment — body, mouth, and mind.
(檀) v. 三藐三佛陀.
The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 華嚴Huayan have Vairocana in the center with Mañjuśrī on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The 彌陀 Mituo or Pure-land sect, have Amitābha in the center, with Avalokiteśvara on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the 藏, 別, and 圓教v. 三教.
The three groups, i.e. 正定聚 Those decided for the truth; 邪定聚 those who are decided for heresy; 不定聚 the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools.
(三聚淨戒) The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) whatever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. 三聚圓戒interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten commandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation.
The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he cannot (a) annihilate causality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living.
V. 三解脫 (三解脫門), but the former is only associated with無漏, or nirvāṇa.
Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third 自調 self-control, the fourth and fifth 自淨 self-purification, the last three 自度 self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also 自體, 自相, 自用 substance, form, and function.
The three exposures, i,e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking— willful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine.