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Thuật ngữ Phật học Anh Hán

Thuật ngữ Phật học Anh Hán
A – E

Abhayagiri-vasinah  A subdivision of early Sthavirah school. Abhayagiri, the Mountain of Fearlessness in Ceylon, where the disciples dwelled in a monastery.


Agama Sutra  It is one of the oldest Buddhist scriptures. These sutras contain the sermons of Shakyamuni Buddha during the first two to three years after he attained Enlightenment and during the year proceeding his Nirvana. The sutras consists of four collections:

in Pali (P) in Sanskrit (S)
1. Digha-nikaya Dirghagama (Long Sayings)   
2. Mojjhima-nikaya Madhyamagama (Middle-length Sayings)   
3. Samyutta-nikaya Samyuktagama (Kindred Sayings)   
4. Anguttara-nikaya Ekottaragama (Gradual Sayings)   
5. Khuddaka-nikaya Ksudrakagama (Minor Saying)   

Khuddaka-nikaya is only included in Pali canon. The five collections is called Sutta-pitaka.


Akushala  Sanskrit word. It means bad Karma.

Alara-Kalama  Alara-Kalama in Pali, Arada-Kalama in Sanskrit. A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state reached by Alara-Kalama was that of a higher formless world where matter no longer exists.

Alaya  An abbreviation of Alaya-vijanana. Alaya is a sort of eternal substance or matter, creative and containing all forms; when considered as a whole, it is non-existent, or contains nothing; when considered phenomenal, it fills the universe. It seems to be of the nature of materialism. It is the store or totality of consciousness both absolute and relative. It is described as the fundamental mind-consciousness of conscious beings, which lays hold of all the experience of the individual life, and which stores and holds the germs of all affairs.

It is the last of Eighth Consciousness from which the Wisdom of Great Round Mirror is derived.

Almsgiving  See charity.

Amitabha  Sanskrit word, literally means boundless light and boundless life. He is the Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure Land), in which all beings enjoy unbounded happiness. Amitabha has forty-eight great vows to establish and adorn his Pure Land. People also recite or call upon his name by the time of dying will be born in the Land of Ultimate Bliss with the reception by Amitabha. Amitabha is one of the most popular and well-known Buddha in China.

Amitabha Sutra  One of the main sutra in Pure Land Sect. It is said to be the only sutra that Shakyamuni preached without being asked. For the sake of facilitating the living beings to practice and cultivate the Buddha way. Shakyamuni revealed and taught us the simplest way for liberation and enlightenment — reciting Amitabha Buddha’s name. By reciting the name, one can opt to be born in the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss. It is one of the most popular sutra recited by the Buddhists in China.

Anagamin  A Sanskrit word means one who does not return. It is the certification of the third fruit of Arhatship. After a Sakrdagamin cuts off the last three categories of his delusions in thought in the Desire Realm, he certifies to the third fruit, and never returns. See Four Fruition.

Ananda  One of the Shakyamuni Buddha’s Ten Great Disciples. He was first in hearing the Buddha’s words. As he had excellent memory, he memorized the Buddha’s sermons, which were later recorded as sutras. He was also the cousin of Shakyamuni Buddha.

Anathapindika  A name given to Sudatta, meant one who gives to the needy. He was a wealthy merchant of Savatthi in ancient India who bought the land from Prince Jeta with as much gold as would cover the ground for the construction of Jetavanna Grove – one of the great monastery Bodhimandala of Shakyamuni Buddha.

Annutara-samyak-sambodhi  Sanskrit word meaning unexcelled complete enlightenment, which is an attribute of every Buddha. It is the highest, correct and complete or universal knowledge or awareness, the perfect wisdom of a Buddha.

Arana  It means a place of stillness, which is to practice pure conduct and to cultivate without the attachment of self and the Four Marks.

Arangaka  One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India, known as the “Forest Treatise”, compiled around 600 B.C.

Arhan  See Arhat and Four Fruition.

Arhat  Arhat in Sanskrit, Arahat in Pali.   Literally, man of worth, honourable one. There are two kinds of arhats, namely, the Sound-hearing arhat (Sravaka) and the Enlightened-to-condition arhat (Praetyka-Buddha). The former attains the wisdom to understand the Four Noble Truth, while the latter attains the wisdom to understand the Law of Dependent Origination or the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination. They represent two vehicles, who “comprehend for their own sake”. As they pay attention to themselves and not to others, they are incapable of genuine and equal enlightenment. There are four noble stages of fruition in the Arhat Path.


Aryasthavirah  See Sthavirah.


Asamkhyeya  A Sanskrit words interpreted as innumerable, and countless. See also kalpas.


Asanga  Brother of Vasubandhu. Originally trained as a Hinayanist, but converted his brother Vasubandha to become Mahayanist. They both established the Yogacara School of Buddhism.


Ashoka  A Buddhist monarch of 300 B.C., the third emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty, who unified most of India under his rule and fostered the dissemination of Buddhism. It is said that the Third Council was held during his reign. Ashoka set the model for many other rulers who sought to govern in accordance with Buddhist philosophy.


Asura  Ashura in Sanskrit, Asura in Pali.   It is a peculiar path in the Six Paths. They are the enemies of the devas, and are the mightest of all demons. In terms of material enjoyment and psychic power, it is similar to Deva. However, in some aspects, it is even worse than the Human Path. The male Asura is extremely ugly and furious, and always fight with each other. The female Asura is as beautiful as an angel. They are proud of themselves, thus reluctant to learn and practice Buddhism.

Atman  The individual self or the soul in Brahmanic thought.

Avalokitesvara  Sanskrit word for the Bodhisattva who Hears the Sounds of the World. He rescues all beings by hearing their voices of suffering and cries for help. In Chinese, he is called Guan Shr Yin or Guan Yin Bodhisattva. As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the greatest compassion and mercy, therefore known as God/Goddess of Mercy.

Guan Yin is one of the triad of Amitabha Buddha, represented on his left, and being the future Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure Land) after Amitabha Buddha.

Guan Yin can transform into many different forms in order to cross over to the beings. Originally represented as a male, the images are now generally those of a female figure. Guan Yin is one of the most popular Bodhisattva in China.


Avarasailah  One of the Hinayana School, a sub division of MahasanghikaSchool. The disciples dwelled in the western mountains in Dhanakataka.


Avatamsaka Sutra  Sanskrit words, also known as Flower Adornment Sutra, or Flower Garland Sutra. One of the great sutras in Buddhism. It was sermoned in heaven by Buddha Shakyamuni soon after his attainment of Buddhahood. The sutra reveals different causes and ways of cultivation of many great Bodhisattvas, such as Ten Grades of Faith, Ten Stages of Wisdom, Ten Activities, Ten Transference of Merits, Ten Stages of Bodhisattva, Absolute Universal Enlightenment, Wonderful Enlightenment, etc. It also reveals how to enter Avatamsaka World (Buddha’s world) from Saha World (our world).

Bahusrutiyah  One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Mahasanghikah. One of their chief doctrines held Buddha’s teaching to be twofold: transcedent on one hand and mundane on the other.


Bamboo Grove  Veluvana in Pali, Venuvana in Sanskrit. The first monastery (Bodhi-mandala) in Buddhism located in Rajagaha. It was donated by the elder Kalanda and built by King Bimblisara of Magadha.


Bhadrayaniyah  One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.


Bhagavat  There are many different meanings:

  1. one who possesses auspicious signs,
  2. one who destroys illusions evil,
  3. one who is provided with such auspicious virtues of freedom as the law, fame, good signs, desire and diligence,
  4. one who has completely understood the Four Noble Truths,
  5. one who receives and keeps various excellent practices,
  6. one who has abandoned the wandering of transmigration.


Bhaisajyaguru  Sanskrit word, i.e., the Buddha of Medicine Master, who quells all diseases and lengthens life. He is the Buddha in the Pure Land of the Paradise of the East, i.e., Pure Land of Lapus Lazuli Light.


Bhiksu  Bhiksu in Sanskrit, Bhikkhu in Pali.   A monk, who has left home, is fully ordained to follow the way of the Buddha, and depends on alms for a living.


Bhiksuni  Bhiksuni in Sanskrit, Bhikkhuni in Pali.   A nun observing more strict rules than a Bhiksu. See also Bhiksu.


Bodhi  A term used in both Sanskrit and Pali, meaning perfect wisdom or enlightenment.


Bodhicitta  The mind of enlightenment. It is with this initiative that a Buddhist begins his path to complete, perfect enlightenment.


Bodhidharma  An Indian missionary monk who came to China in 600 A.D., regarded as the founder of the Chan (Zen) School of Buddhism in China, i.e. the First Patriarch.


Bodhimandala  A monastery where Bhiksus (monks) and Bhiksunis (nuns) practise and teach the Buddhist Dharma.

It also generally refers to a holy place of enlightenment; a place for teaching and learning the Dharma; a place where a Bodhisattva appears and where devotees have glimpses of him.


Bodhisattva  Bodhisattva in Sanskrit, Bodhisatta in Pali. A Future Buddha who is a being destined to Buddhahood. Bodhi means Enlightenment and Sattva means Sentient and Conscious. Therefore Bodhisattva refers to the sentient being of or for the great wisdom and enlightenment. Bodhisattva’s vow/aim is the pursuit of Buddhahood and the salvation of others and of all. He seeks enlightenment to enlighten others. He will sacrifice himself to save the others. He is devoid of egoism and devoted to help the others. The way and discipline of Bodhisattva is to benefit the self and the others, leading to Buddhahood.


Brahma  One of the three major deities of Hinduism, along with Visnu (Vishnu) and Siva (Shiva). Adopted as one of the protective deities of Buddhism.


Brahman  The highest of the Four Castes in ancient India at the time of Shakyamuni. They served Brahma, with offerings; the keepers of the Vedas, i.e. priestly caste.


Brahmana  One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India. The portion of the Veda that deals with ceremony and rituals.


Brahmin  Name used in the present text for the priestly caste of Hindus. See Brahman.


Buddha  Means “the Enlightened One” or “the Awakened One”.


Buddha-ksetra  That is, Buddhaland. The term is absent from the Hinayana schools. In Mahayana, it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment, e.g. Amitabha in Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss (Western Paradise), Bhaisajya guru (Medicine Master Buddha) in Pure Land of Lapus Lazuli Light (Eastern Paradise).


Buddhata  Buddha Nature i.e. the potential for attaining Buddhahood, or enlightenment. In the absolute sense, it is unproduced and immortal. Every sentient being possesses the Buddha Nature, but it requires to be cultivated in order to be revealed.


Burning Lamp Buddha  He was the Buddha that bestowed a prediction of Buddhahood on Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the one who gave Shakyamuni a name, saying “In the future, you will become a Buddha named Shakyamuni.”

Caityasailah  See Jetavaniyah.


Caityavandana  See Jetavaniyah.


Catur-Maharaja-Kayika  The four heavens of the four Deva-Kings. It is the lowest of the six heavens of the Realm of Desire.


Causal Ground  Fundamental cause; the state of practising the Buddhism which leads to the resulting Buddhahood.


Cave of the Seven Leaves  Saptaparna-guha in Sanskrit, Sattapanna-guba in Pali.   The site of the First Buddhist Council, near Rajagaha.


Chakra  A wheel in Yoga, one of the psychic centres of the body.


Chan  Also called Zen; see Contemplation and Meditation.


Chan School  The Chan School was established in China by Bodhidharma, the 28th Patriarch who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India. This school, disregarding ritual and sutras, as they believe in sudden enlightenment which is beyond any mark, including speech and writing. They practice meditation with Hua Tou. This school is said to be for those of superior roots.


Charity  Or almsgiving, the first Paramita. There are three kinds of charity in terms of goods, doctrines (Dharma) and courage (fearlessness). Out of the three, the merits and virtues of doctrines charity is the most surpassing. Charity done for no reward here and hereafter is called pure or unsullied, while the sullied charity is done for the purpose of personal benefits. In Buddhism, the merits and virtues of pure charity is the best.

Chih Che  Chih Che (A.D. 538-597) was the Third Patriarch of the Tien Tai School. He had a deep understanding and insight on the Lotus Sutra. He wrote many books to explain the doctrines in Lotus Sutra, which established the fundamental structure in the teaching of the Tien Tai School.


Chih-Kuan  A method of cultivation, commonly practised in Tien Tai Sect in China. It is similar to meditation, looking into the mind. There are two processes:


  1. Chih – a Chinese word which means fixing the mind to meditate on the ten Dharma realms
  2. Kuan – a Chinese word which means contemplating and looking into underlying reality of all things.

No priority of cultivation is given to the one or the other, but should be cultivated simultaneously. Its principle and the airm of practice is to realize the Three Dogmas and to attain Sudden Enlightenment.


Chu Shih-hsing (~3rd Century)  He went to Khotan requesting the King for the original texts of Buddhist sutras. He was also the translator.


Condition  There is no existing phenomena that is not the effect of dependent origination. All phenomena arise dependent upon a number of casual factors called conditions.


Conditioned Dharma  It refers to all phenomena and law in the world. The worldly dharma is governed by the Law of Cause and Effect and Law of Dependent Origination or conditions. In general, there are three kinds of conditioned dharma, namely


  1. form   –   all material which has form.
  2. mental   –   related to all mental activities.
  3. neither form nor the mental.

Contemplation  Abstract contemplation. There are four levels through which the mind frees itself from all subjects and objective hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and annihilation of thought, perception, and will. See also Meditation.

Deer Park  Migadaya in Pali, Mrgadava in Sanskrit.   Deer Park in Benares, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Kasi. It was a place of Shakyamuni’s first sermon to the Five Bhikhus after his Enlightenment.


Devadatta  A cousin of Shakyamuni. At first, he was a follower of Shakyamuni, but later left him and even attempted to kill him.


Devine Eye  One of the Six Psychic Power and one of the Five Eyes. Unlimited vision, large and small, distant and near, the destiny of all beings in future rebirth. It may be obtained by human eyes through the practice of meditation/Samadhi.


Devotion  See Vigor.


Dhammapada  Dhammapada in Pali, Dharmapada in Sanskrit. A sutra consisting of two sections and 39 chapters, with 423 short verses of the Buddha, teachings given at various times and places. It is regarded as the “original” teaching of the Buddha, which can be used for reference, moral instruction and inspiration. It was composed by Dharmatrata in 400-300 B.C.


Dharani  A mystic form of praying, mantra or spells of Tantric order, ofter in Sanskrit, usually transliterated and not translated. It is believed that Dharani is able to lay hold of the good so that it cannot be lost, and those of evil so that it cannot arise.


Dharma  Dharma in Sanskrit, Dhamma in Pali.   The universal norms or laws that govern human existence and is usually regarded as law, truth, anything Buddhist. It is used in the sense of all things, visible or invisible. In Buddhist tradition, it is generally referred to as the teaching of the Buddha.


Dharma-wheel  See Wheel of Law.


Dharmagupta  He translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 601 jointly with Jnanagupta.


Dharmaguptah  One of the Hinayana sect, a subdivision of Sarvastivadah, developed from Mahisasakah and located in northwest India and Central Asia.

Literally means those who protect (or preserve) the Law. They were instrumental informing the cult of the stupa, and were expert in incantation.


Dharmalaksana School  Also known as Yogacara.   It aims at discovery of the ultimate entity of cosmic existence in contemplation through investigation into the specific characteristics of all existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of “self” in mystic illumination.


Dharmaraksa  Dharmaraksa (A.D. 223-300) was the Chinese born descendant of Iranian who had settled in West China generations before. He had translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 286.


Dharmaraksha  Moved from India to China about 25 A.D. Together with Kashyapamatanga, they were regarded as the first translator for Buddhist sutras in China. They translated five sutras but only “Sutra of Forty-two Chapters” was extant.


Dharmottariyah  One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin developed from Vatsiputriyah. Dharmottara is the Buddhist logician writing, an important commentary called the Nyayabindu-tika on Dharmakirtis Nyayabindu.


Dukkha  Buddhist word meaning suffering. Broadly speaking, it means not complete and not perfect.


Dvadashamukha Shastra  One of the Three Shastra of Madhyamika School, composed by Nagarjuna, translated by Kumarajiva A.D. 408. There are several works on it.

Effort  See Vigor.


Eight Divisions of Gods and Dragons  Devas (gods), Nagas (Dragons) and others of eight divisions (classes): deva, nagas, yakas, ganharvas, asuras, gaudas, kinaras, mahoragas.


Eight Negations  The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of Madhyamika, are actually four pairs of neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going. This is one of the important concepts of the Middle Way, the ultimate truth of Buddhism and the reality character of all Dharma.


The Eight Precepts  They are:

  1. no killing
  2. no stealing
  3. no sexual misconduct
  4. no false speech
  5. no alcoholic drink
  6. no cosmetic, personal adnornments, dancing or music
  7. no sleeping on fine beds
  8. no eating after noon


Eight Sufferings  (1) Suffering of Birth
(2) Suffering of Old Age
(3) Suffering of Sickness
(4) Suffering of Death
(5) Suffering of being apart from the loved ones
(6) Suffering being together with the despised ones
(7) Suffering of not getting what one wants
(8) Suffering of the flourishing of the Five Skandhas


Eight Winds  Or the Winds of Eight Directions. Most people are usually moved by the winds of the eight directions:
(1) Praise
(2) Ridicule
(3) Suffering
(4) Happiness
(5) Benefit
(6) Destruction
(7) Gain
(8) Loss


Eighteen Different Characters  There are eighteen different characters of a Buddha as compared with all other beings in the Nine Realms.

  1. His perfection of body (or person)
  2. His perfection of mouth (or speech)
  3. His perfection of memory
  4. His perfection of impartiality to all
  5. Serenity
  6. Self-sacrifice
  7. Unceasing desire to save
  8. Unflagging zeal therein to save
  9. Unfailing thought thereto to save
  10. Unceasing wisdom to save
  11. Powers of deliverance
  12. The principle of the powers of deliverance
  13. Revealing perfect wisdom in deed
  14. Revealing perfect wisdom in word
  15. Revealing perfect wisdom in thought
  16. Perfect knowledge of the past
  17. Perfect knowledge of the future
  18. Perfect knowledge of the present


Eighteen Fields  The Six Consciousness and the Twelve Bases are together called the Eighteen Fields.


Eighteen Sects of Hinayana 

  1. Mahasanghikah is divided into eight schools:
    1. Ekavyavaharikah
    2. Lokottaravadinah
    3. Kaukkutikah (Gokulika)
    4. Bahusrutiyah
    5. Prajnativadinah
    6. Jetavaniyah (Caityasailah)
    7. Avarasailah
    8. Uttarasailah


  2. Sthavirah or Aryasthavirah is divided into ten schools:
    1. Haimavatah
    2. Vatsiputriyah (developed from Sarvastivadah)
    3. Dharmottariyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
    4. Bhadrayaniyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
    5. Sammatiyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
    6. Sannagarikah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
    7. Mahisasakah
    8. Dharmaguptah (developed from Mahisasakah)
    9. Kasyapiyah (developed from Sarvastivadah)
    10. Sautrantika (developed from Sarvastivadah)

Under (I), the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable.

Under (II), the Haimavatah and the Sarvastivadah are dated some 200 years after Nirvana; from the Sarvastivadah soon arose the Vatsiputriyah, from whom soon arose the third, fourth, fifth and sixth; then from the Sarvastivadah there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, near the 400th year, the Sarvastivadah gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth.

In the list of eighteen, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into account, as it split into all the rest.


Eightfold Path  The eight right ways for the Arhat leading to Nirvana. The eight are:
(1) Right View
(2) Right Thought
(3) Right Speech
(4) Right Action
(5) Right Livelihood
(6) Right Effort
(7) Right Remembrance
(8) Right Concentration


Ekavyavaharika  Ekavyavaharika in Sanskrit, Ekabyohara in Pali.   One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Mahasanghikah, which considered things as nominal, i.e. just names without any underlying reality. They held that the mind is by its nature pure and radiant, inaccessible to defilement.


Emptiness  The Sanskrit word is Sunya. One of the key concepts in Buddhism. Emptiness is an abstract idea representing impermanence, unreality, instability, transience and relativity in the nature of all existence. The doctrine states that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of Skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The doctrine also states that everything is unstable, possessing no self-essence or self-nature, i.e., its own existence dependent or caused by the conditions of others’ existence.
Emptiness is not nothing, but it is the condition of existence of everything. It permeates all phenomena making possible their evolution.


Endurance  See Patience.


Energy  See Vigor.


Enlightenment  “Enlightenment” sometimes refers to the attainment of Buddhahood, as the “Enlightened One” means Buddha. If one is enlightened, one has a complete and perfect understanding of the reality character of everything.


Evil World of Five Turbidities  It refers to the world on Earth. The Five Turbidities are

  1. the Kalpa Turbidity   
    the age of people decreases and all kinds of diseases afflict people;
  2. the View Turbidity   
    people’s views start to degenerate;
  3. the Affliction Turbidity   
    passions, delusions, desire, anger, stupidity, pride and doubt prevail;
  4. the Living Beings Turbidity   
    human miseries increase and happiness decreases;
  5. the Life Turbidity   
    the human lifespan gradually diminishes to ten years.


Extinction  It means having put the Two Obstacles, i.e. the obstacle of afflictions and the obstacle of what is known, to an end. It also means that the beings have transcended the Two Deaths, i.e. glare-sectioned birth and death and changed birth and death.

Thuật ngữ Phật học Anh Hán
F – K

Fa Yun  Fa Yun (A.D. 467-529) was a great Dharma master of the Satyasiddhi School, also a scholar of the Nirvana School. He wrote a commentary on Lotus Sutra, which is generally accepted by Japanese Buddhism later.

First Council  Also known as 500 CouncilTheravada Council”, The First Compilation, etc. The assembly of 500 leading Bhikhus gathered for 3 months after the Buddha’s death to compile the Buddhist sutras. It was held at Cave of the Seven Leaves near Rajagaha.

In the assembly, Ananda recited the Sutta-pitaka, Upali recited the Rules of Disciplines of the Order, i.e., Vinaya-pitaka, and Kassapa recited the Abhidhamma. Thus, the Tripitaka was adopted as a unity of doctrines and opinions within the religious order, and also an orthodox teaching for the Buddhists to follow.


Five Basic Afflications  The five fundamental conditions of the passions and delusions:

  1. wrong view, which are common to the Trailokya
  2. clinging or attachment in the Desire Realm
  3. clinging or attachment in the Form Realm
  4. clinging or attachment in the Formless Realm
  5. the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in Trailokya, which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion.


Five Bhikshus  The first five of Buddha’s converts:

in Pali (P) in Sanskrit (S)
Ajnata-Kaundinya Ajnata-Kondanna
Bhadrika Bhaddiya
Asvajit Assagi
Vaspa Vappa
Mahanaman Mahanama

They followed Shakyamuni to practice asceticism, but left him when he abandoned such practices. Later, when Shakyamuni attained Buddhahood, his first sermon was preached in Deer Park to these men, who became his first disciples.


Five Categories of Untranslated Terms  Chinese T”ang Dynasty Master of the Tripitaka Hsuan-Tsang established five categories of words which should be left untranslated

  1. the esoteric
  2. words having multiple meanings
  3. words for things not existing in China
  4. words not translated in accord with already established precedent
  5. words left untranslated in order to give rise to wholesomeness and respect


Five Commandments  See Five Precepts.


Five Eyes  There are five kinds of eyes or vision


  1. human eye   –   it is our flesh eye, an organ to see an object with limitation, for instance, in darkness, with obstruction.
  2. devine eye   –   it can see in darkness and in distance, attainable by men in dhyana (concentration/meditation).
  3. wisdom eye   –   the eye of Arhat and Two Vehicles i.e. the sound-hearers (Sravaka) and the Enlightened to Conditions (Praetyka-Buddha). It can see the false and empty nature of all phenomena.
  4. dharma eye   –   the eye of Bodhisattva. It can see all the dharmas in the world and beyond the world.
  5. buddha eye   –   the eye of Buddha or omniscience. It can see all that four previous eyes can see.


Five Forms of Decaying  When the devas are dying, there are five symptoms:
1. the flowers around the crown
2. the clothes being dirty
3. having unpleasant smell in the body
4. sweating in armpit
5. Being unhappy in seat


Five Messengers  They are five messengers of Manjusri:
1. Kesini
2. Upakesini
3. Citra
4. Vasumati
5. Akarsani


Five Offences  The five rebellious acts or deadly sins:
(1) parricide, i.e., killing father
(2) matricide, i.e., killing mother
(3) killing an arhat
(4) shedding the blood of a Buddha
(5) destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity.


Five Precepts  Or Five Commandments for layman
(1) No killing
(2) No stealing
(3) No sexual misconduct/adultery
(4) No lying
(5) No intoxicant

It is essential for the rebirth in human realms.


Five Skandhas  Or Five Aggregates, that is, the five components of an intelligent beings, or psychological analysis of the mind:

  1. Matter or Form (rupa) – the physical form responded to the five organs of senses, i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue and body
  2. Sensation or Feeling (vedana) – the feeling in reception of physical things by the senses through the mind
  3. Recognition or Conception (sanjna) – the functioning of mind in distinguishing and formulating the concept
  4. Volition or Mental Formation (samskara) – habitual action, i.e., a conditioned response to the object of experience, whether it is good or evil, you like or dislike
  5. Consciousness (vijnana) – the mental faculty in regard to perception, cognition and experience


Five Vehicles  Pancayana in Sanskrit.   The Five Vehicles conveying the karma-reward which differs according to the vehicle:

  1. Human Vehicle – rebirth among human conveyed by observing the Five Commandments (Five Precepts)
  2. Deva Vehicle – among the devas by the Ten Forms of Good Actions (Ten Wholesomeness)
  3. “Sound-Hearing” Arhat – among the sravakas by the Four Noble Truths
  4. “Enlightened by Conditions” Arhat – among the pratyeka-buddhas by the Twelve Nidanas
  5. Bodhisattva – among the Bodhisattvas by the Six Paramita


Five Wisdoms 

  1. Wisdom of the Embodied Nature of Dharma Realm 
    – derived from amala-vijanana, i.e. pure consciousness (or mind).
  2. Wisdom of the Great Round Mirror 
    – derived from alaya-vijanana, (8th consciousness) reflecting all things.
  3. Wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally 
    – derived from manovijanana (7th consciousness).
  4. Wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt – destruction 
    – derived from the mind consciousness (6th consciousness).
  5. Wisdom of perfecting the double work of self welfare and the welfare of others 
    – derived from the five senses (1st to 5th consciousness).


Flower Adornment Sutra  One of the most important sutra in Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism. There are many volumes in the Sutra. It describes the entire Buddha Realm which is, of course, not easy to visualize. See also Avatamsaka Sutra.


Foremost Paramita  It refers to the perfect principle of Middle Way. It is neither birth nor death, without dwelling in Nirvana. It is the substance of everything beyond words and conceptual thinking.


Four Aspects (of Buddhist Dharma)  (1) the teaching
(2) the principle
(3) the practice
(4) the fruit/reward/result


Four Castes  The class system in ancient India:


  1. Brahman – the highest caste,
  2. Kshatriyas (royal families) – the warrior,
  3. Vaishyas (ordinary citizen),
  4. Sudras (slaves).


Four Fearlessness  There are four kinds of fearlessness, of which there are two groups:

  1. Buddha’s fearlessness arises from
    1. his omniscience
    2. perfection of character
    3. overcoming opposition
    4. ending of suffering
  2. Bodhisattva’s fearlessness arises from
    1. powers of memory
    2. power of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy
    3. power of ratiocination
    4. power of solving doubts


Four Fruition  Also called the “Four Fruits”, the “Four Rewards”, or the “Four Phala”. These are four grades of arhatship, namely:

  1. Srota-apanna (Srota-apanna in Sanskrit, Sota-panna in Pali) : has entered the stream of holy living; the first stage of the arhat, that of a Sravaka
  2. Sakrdagamin (Sakrdagamin in Sanskrit, Sakadagamin in Pali) : comes to be born once more; the second grade of arhatship involving only one birth
  3. Anagamin: will not be reborn in this world (i.e. Six Paths), but in the Form Realm or Formless Realm, where he will attain to Nirvana
  4. Arhat: enters Nirvana. All Karma of reincarnation is destroyed. He also reaches a state of no longer learning. He is the highest Saint in Hinayana in contrast with the Bodhisattva as the Saint in Mahayana


Four Great Bodhisattva  They represent the four major characters of Bodhisattva:

  1. Manjusri – Universal Great Wisdom Bodhisattva
  2. Samantabhadra – Universal Worthy Great Conduct Bodhisattva
  3. Ksitigarbha – Earth Treasury King Great Vow Bodhisattva
  4. Avalokitesvara – Guan Shr Yin Great Compassion Bodhisattva


Four Great Elements  All matters are formed and are composed by four conditioned causes :
(1) earth, which is characterized by solidity and durability
(2) water, which is characterized by liquid/fluid and moisture
(3) fire, which is characterized by energy and warmth
(4) wind, which is characterized by gas/air movement


Four Great Vows 

  1. Vow to take across the numberless living beings.
  2. Vow to cut off the endless afflictions.
  3. Vow to study the countless Dharma doors.
  4. Vow to realize the supreme Buddha Way.


Four Holy Realms  They are Sravaka, Praetyka-Buddha, Bodhisattva, and Buddha.


Four Immeasurable Minds  See Four Unlimited Minds.


Four Marks  A mark is a notion of form. In Diamond Sutra, it states that people attach to the Four Marks which hinder them from Buddhahood. Conversely, those who see all marks as no mark are Buddhas. The Four Marks are

  1. a mark of self
  2. a mark of others
  3. a mark of sentient being
  4. a mark of life


Four Noble Truths  It is the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni

  1. Doctrine of Suffering – suffering is a necessary attribute of sentient existence (Effect of Suffering)
  2. Doctrine of Accumulation – accumulation of suffering is caused by passions (Cause of Suffering)
  3. Doctrine of Extinction – extinction of passion (Effect of Happiness)
  4. Doctrine of Path – Path leading to the extinction of passion (Cause of Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path.

The first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two to the life outside and beyond this world.
The Four Noble Truths were first preached to Shakyamuni’s five former ascetic companions.


Four Phala  See Four Fruition.


Four Reliance (to learning Buddhist Dharma)  The four standards of Right Dharma which buddhist should rely on or abide by:

  1. to abide by the Dharma, not the person
  2. to abide by the sutras of ultimate truth, not the sutras of incomplete truth
  3. to abide by the meaning, not the word
  4. to abide by the wisdom, not the consciousness


Four Seals  They are:

  1. All phenomena are impermanent.
  2. All Dharma are not-self.
  3. The eternity is Nirvana.
  4. All sensations are suffering.


Four Sects of Hinayana  From the time of Ashoka, there were four principal schools out of the Eighteen sects of Hinayana, namely Mahasanghika, Sthavirah, Mulasarvastivadah and Sammatiyah.


Four Unlimited Mind  The mind of Bodhisattva:
1. Kindness
2. Compassion
3. Delight
4. Renunciation


Four Virtues  The four Nirvana virtues:
(1) Eternity or permanence
(2) Joy
(3) Personality
(4) Purity

These four important virtues are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental or nirvana-realm.


Four Ways (of learning Buddhist Dharma)  (1) Belief/faith
(2) Interpretation/discernment
(3) Practice/performance
(4) Verification/assurance

These are the cyclic process in learning a truth.


Fourfold Assembly  Or the Four Varga (groups) are bhiksu, bhiksuni, upasaka and upasika, i.e. monks, nuns, male and female devotees.


Fundamental Face  Also known as Fundamentally Unborn. A common term used in Chan practice.

It is actually the fundamental mind, considered to be the Buddha’s Dharma Body. It is the form of the fundamental truth, so called True Suchness or Bhutaththata.

Gatha  Ancient Indian verse.


Giving  See charity.


Gokulika  See Kaukkutikah.


Good Roots  There are eleven kinds of good roots:

  1. faith
  2. shame
  3. remorse
  4. absence of greed
  5. absence of hatred
  6. absence of stupidity
  7. vigor
  8. transquility
  9. non-laxity
  10. non-harming
  11. renunciation

These are eleven good Dharmas of the fifty one Dharmas belonging to the heart.


Gotama  Gotama in Pali, Gautama in Sanskrit. The surname of the Shakya clan into which Shakyamuni was born. Another name for Shakyamuni.


Gui Ji  Gui Ji (A.D. 632-682) was a great Dharma master of the Dharmalaksana School. His writing on the Lotus Sutra was so remarkable that was generally accepted and interpreted by other great Dharma masters.

Haimavatah  One of the Hinayana School, a subdivision of Sthaviradin. It was a school of the snow mountains, a schismatic philosophical school.

Hau Tou  Intense concentration on a question-word which defies any answer and allows no answer at all. Literally, it refers to the source of word before it is uttered. It is a method used in Ch’an Sect to arouse the doubt. The practitioner meditates on questions as who is reciting the Buddha’s name?. He does not rely on experience or reasoning. Sometimes, it is also known as Kung-an.


Heavenly Eye  See Devine Eye.


Hetavadinah  Another name of Sarvastivadah.


Hinayana  Also called Small Vehicle or Liberated Vehicle, which refers to Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha. It is a school of Buddhism, popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, hence also known as Southern Buddhism, in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahayana, the form mainly prevalent from Nepal to Japan.

Hinayana is sometimes described as self-benefiting, and Mahayana as self-benefiting for the benefit of others. Another difference is that Pali is the general literary language in Hinayana while Sanskrit of Mahayana. See also Theravada.

Hinayana is nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha. For further details, please refer to Section 3-A A Glimpse in the Scope of Buddhism in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Buddhist Door.


Hsu Yun  A great Ch’an master in China. He died in 1959 at the age of 120.


Hsuan-tsang (600-664 A.D.)  A famous translator in Chinese Buddhism, next to Kumarajiva. He translated more scriptures than any other translators, such as:

  • Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra, i.e. Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra ( ), 600 fasicles translated in 660-663 A.D.
  • Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-shastra (Treatise on the Establishment of the Doctrine of Mere Consciousness) ( ), 10 fasciles translated in 659 A.D.
  • Mahayanabhidharma-samucchaya (collection of the Mahaya Abhidharma) ( ), 7 fasciles in 652 A.D.
  • Mahayanabhidharma-samucchaya-vyakhya (Exeglsis on the collection of the Mahayana Abhidhin), 16 fasciles in 646 A.D.
  • Mahayanasamgraha (comprehensive Treatise on Mahayana Buddhism) ( ), 3 fasciles in 648-649 A.D.

Hsuan-tsang was born into a family of scholars near Loyang ( ), but his father did not want to serve the new king, then became poor. In order to make a living, Tsuan-tsang followed the step of his elder brother to become ordained monk when he was a child.

However, when he was eleven, he was able to read the Vinalakirti Sutra, the Lotus Sutra, etc. He was brought up at Hui-jih Temple in Loyang. Later, he went to Chuang-yen Temple in Chang-an in search of better teachers, but in vain. Because of famine, Tsuan-tsang settled in Szechuan Province and continued his study in Buddhism. He kept on seeking for better teachers, but found no more outstanding scholars.

In 629, when Hsuan-tsang was around thirty, he set out to the west for travel and study. In his travels, he had recorded all his experience in India and Central Asia in details, which had important information on geography, history, politics, economics, culture of that time.


Hua-yen School  It is based on the Avatamsaka Sutra and was founded by Tu Shun in China.


Hui Neng  The Sixth Patriarch of Zen (Ch’an) Sect in China.

Ignorance  Sanskrit word is Avidya. Literally, it means darkness without illumination. Actually it refers to illusion without englightenment, i.e., the illusory phenomena for realities. Avidya is the first or the last of the Twelve Nidanas. Ignorance, karma and desire are the three forces that cause reincarnation.

Jainism  A religion founded by Nataputta, who was a royal clan of the Nata tribe in ancient India at the time of Shakyamuni. Similar to Buddhism, its basic doctrine is non-materialistic atheism.


Jataka  The sutra to narrate the birth stories of Shakyamuni in present life, past lives, and effects related to the past lives and the present lives.


Jetavaniyah  Or Jetiyasailah, school of the dwellers on Mount Jeta, which is a sub division of the Sthavirah, one of the Hinayana sect.

Also known as Caitya-vandana, who paid reverence to or worship a stupa. Caitya is a religious monument or stupa in which the relics of the Buddha or other reverend sages are placed. This sect held that the Buddha’s discourse was transcendent, his enlightenment was already determined when he was born, that he could violate the natural laws, and could be reborn wherever he wished (in his previous lives as a Bodhisattva).


Jetavanna Grove  A famous monastery Bodhimandala of Shakyamuni Buddha, where he spoke of many sutras. It was located in Savatthi, the capital of savatthi. The land was bought by a wealthy merchant Anathapindika with as much gold as would cover the ground, and the houses were built by Prince Jeta for the Buddha and his followers.


Ji Zang  Ji Zang (A.D. 549-623) was a great Dharma master of Madhyamika, who wrote five books regarding the Lotus Sutra.


Jie Huan  He was a great Dharma master in Sung Dynasty. Practicing in Chan School, he used the concept of Chan to interpret the Lotus Sutra.


Jnanagupta  He translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 601, jointly with Dharmagupta.

Kalpa  Kalpa in Sanskrit, Kappa in Pali.   It is a fabulous period of four hundred and thirty two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of world. It is the period of time between other creation and recreation of a world or universe.

The four kalpas of formation, existence, destruction and emptiness as a complete period, is called maha kalpa or great kalpas. Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asamkhyeya-kalpas or kalpas. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas, or small kalpas. There are different distinctions and illustrations of kalpas. In general, a small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years and a mahakalpa is 1,334,000,000 years.


Kapilavatsu  The capital of Shakya kingdom. The king of Kapilavatsu was Suddhodana, who was the father of Shakyamuni. The present-day Kapilavatsu is in Nepal.


Karma  Karman in Sanskrit, Kamma in Pali. It means action, deed, moral duty, effect. Karma is moral action which causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also moral kernal in each being which survive death for further rebirth.


Kashyapamatanga  Moved from India to China at about 25 A.D. Together with Dharmaraksha, they were regarded as the first translator for Buddhist sutras in China. They translated five sutras but only “Sutra of Forty-two Chapters” was extant.


Kasyapiya  One of the Hinayana sect, a subdivision of Sarvastivadah.


Kaukkutikah (Gokulika)  One of the Hinayana sect. A branch of Mahasanghikah. They held that there is no hapiness whatsoever in the world, just suffering.


King Bimblisara  The king of Magadha, one of the four great kingdoms in ancient India. He was devoted in Buddhism, and was converted to the follower of Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the one who built Bamboo Grove Park in Rajagaha, the first Bodhi mandala in Buddhism.


Koan  A Japanese term taken from the Chinese Kung-an.


Koliya  The royal clan to which the mother of Shakyamuni, Maya belonged. The kings of the Koliya and Shakya were brothers, and the families were inter-married. Indeed, Yasodhara, the wife of Shakyamuni, was also a princess of Koliya royal house.


Kosala  Kosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four great states (i.e., Kosala, Magadha, Vansa & Avanti) in ancient India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the power and influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where the famous monastery (Bodhi-mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.


Ksatriya  Ksatriya in Sanskrit, Khattiya in Pali.   The second of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling castes.


Ksitigarbha  Earth Store Bodhisattva. He is now the guardian of the earth. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the Nirvana of Shakyamuni and the advent of Maitreya. He vows that while the hell is not empty, he will not attain Buddhahood. As his vow is the greatest, he is also known as The Great Vow Bodhisattva.


Kumarajiva (344-413 A.D.)  One of the most eminent translators in Chinese Buddhism. He was born in a noble family, but he went with his mother to learn Agama Sutras and other Hinayana taught him Mahayana Buddhism.

Kumarajiva was ordained as a monk at the age of twenty. He was so famous in his countries that Tao-an would like to invite him to China. His mother also encouraged Kumarajiva to preach the genuine teachings of Buddhism in China.

Eventually, Kumarajiva arrived at Chang-an ( ) and welcomed by the Emperor Yao Hsing ( ). Kumarajiva was honoured to be the National Preceptor, who was in charge of translating sutras.

Kumarajiva translated 74 scriptures in 384 fasicles in total, such as Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, the Lotus Sutra, the Amitabha Sutra, the Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, the Treatise on the Middle, the Treatise in One Hundred Verses, the Treatises on the Twelve Gates and the Ten Vinaya. His translation work contributed both to the development of Buddhism in China, and to the establishment of various sects in Chinese Buddhism.

Before he died, he preclaimed that if his translation accorded with the genuine principles of Buddhism, his tongue would be intact and not turn to ash. After incineration of his body, the tongue was not damaged.


Kung-an  In Zen, it is a word, or a phrase, or a story couched in irrational language which cannot be solved by intellectual processes, but whose meaning must burst on the mind directly. Kung-an is used as an exercise in breaking the false thoughts, developing the deep intuition, and achieving a state of awareness.


Kushala  Sanskrit word. It means good Karma.


Kusinara  Kusinara in Pali, Kusinagara in Sanskrit.   The village where Shakyamuni died, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Malla.

Thuật ngữ Phật học Anh Hán
L – R

Law  Ruling principle, universal basis, essential element, i.e. fundamental law.


Law of Causal Condition  The fundamental doctrine of Buddhism that all phenomena in the universe are produced by causation. Since all phenomena result from the complicated causes and effects, all existing things in the universe are inter-dependent, i.e., no self nature or existence on its own. Moreover, all phenomena and things are impermanent (i.e. changing constantly). It was to this law that Shakyamuni was awakened when he attained enlightenment.


Law of Cause and Effect  The Law of Cause and Effect treats of the Law of Causal condition as it relates to an individual.


Law of Dependent Origination  It states that all phenomenon arise depending upon a number of casual factors. In other word, it exists in condition that the other exist; it has in condition that others have; it extinguishes in condition that others extinguish; it has not in condition that others have not. For existence, there are twelve links in the chain:

  • Ignorance is the condition for karmic activity;
  • Karmic activity is the condition for consciousness;
  • Consciousness is the condition for the name and form;
  • Name and form is the condition for the six sense organs;
  • Six sense organs are the condition for contact;
  • Contact is the condition for feeling;
  • Feeling is the condition for emotional love/craving;
  • Emotional love/craving is the condition for grasping;
  • Grasping is the condition for existing;
  • Existing is the condition for birth;
  • Birth is the condition for old age and death;
  • Old age and death is the condition for ignorance; and so on.


Law of Karma  The results of actions, which produce effect that may be either good or bad. It is derived from the Law of Causal Condition (Law of Cause and Effect).


Lokottaravadinah  One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Mahasanghikah, which held the view that all in the world is merely phenomenal and that reality exists outside it. They held that the body of the Buddha was transcendental from the time of his birth to the time of his death. Consequently, his behaviour as a human was merely a convention.


Lotus Sutra  Short name of the Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law, or Saddharma-pundarik-sutra in Sanskrit. It consists of a series of sermons delivered by Shakyamuni towards the end of his preaching ministry. It is one of the most important sutras of Manayana Buddhism. Basically, it states that all sentient beings can attain Buddhahood, and nothing less than this is the appropriate final goal of all Buddhists. It also states that the Buddha is eternal, and the supreme form of Buddhist practice is the way of the Bodhisattva. Lotus flower is used to describe the brightness and pureness of the One Buddha Vehicle.


Lumbini Park  The birthplace of Shakyamuni Buddha, which lay between the state of the Shakyas and the Koliyas.

Magadha  One of the four great kingdoms (i.e. Magadha, Kosala, Vansa, and Avanti) in ancient India. The capital of Magadha was Rajagaha. The king of Magadha, Bimblisara, became the follower of Shakyamuni.


Mahakasyapa  Mahakassapa in Pali, Mahakasyapa in Sanskrit.   He was a Brahman in Magadha, who became one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the foremost in ascetism. He is regarded as the First Patriarch because he responded with a smile when Shakyamuni Buddha held up a golden flower in a sermon. This is known to be the transmission of heart-seal. After the death of Shakyamuni, he was the leader of the disciples. He convened the First Council to compile the Buddhist canon, i.e. Tripitika. Mahakassapa is supposed to be living in Kukkutapada (Cock Foot Mountain) in Magadha, on which he enters into Nirvana.


Mahamaya  The mother of Shakyamuni. She was the Koliyan Princess and married to Suddhodana. She died seven days after giving birth to Shakyamuni.


Mahapajapati  She was the sister of Mahamaya, the mother of Shakyamuni. They both married King Suddhodana. Maya died seven days after the birth of Shakyamuni. Mahapajapati then became the step/foster mother of Shakyamuni, and treated Shakyamuni so kind as her son, Nanda. Nanda was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni. After the death of King Suddhodana, Mahapajapati was ordained to be the first woman admitted in Buddhist order.


Maha-Parinibbana-Sutta  Maha-Parinibbana-Sutta in Pali and Maha-Parinirvana-Sutra in Sanskrit.   Also known as the Sutra of the Great Nirvana/Decease, recording the final sermon, the death and the funeral of Shakyamuni.


Maha-prajna-paramita-sutra  The Sutra was delivered by Shakyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies. It consists of 600 volumes as translated by Hsuan-tsang. It is the fundamental philosophical work of the Mahayana Buddhism, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth paramita.


Mahasanghika  Literally means the Member of the Great Order, majority, community.

During the First Council, when the Sthavira or elder disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha’s death, and the other disciples (called to be Mahasanghika) assembled outside the cave. Both compiled the Tripitaka. However, the former emphasized on the rules of disciplines in the monastic community, while the latter concerned the spread of the spirit of Buddhism in lay community. As sects, the principal division took place in the Second Council.

Mahasanghika and Sthavira are known as two earliest sects in Hinayana. Mahasanghika is said to be the basis of the development of the Mahayana Buddhism, while Sthavira of the Theravada Buddhism.

For the sub division of Mahasanghika, please refer to the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana.


Mahasattva  There are seven meanings of Mahasattva:


  1. He has perfected great roots.
  2. He has great wisdom.
  3. He believes the great Dharma.
  4. He understands the great principle.
  5. He cultivates the great conduct.
  6. He passes through great kalpas.
  7. He seeks the great fruit.


Mahaviharavasinah  A subdivision of the Sthavirah school, which opposed to the Mahayana system.


Mahayana  Also called Great Vehicle or Bodhisattva Vehicle. It is a school of Buddhism prevalent in China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Tibet and other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism.

Mahayana is described as seeking Buddhahood and transforming beings, thus self-benefiting for the benefits of the others.

See also Hinayana. For further details, please refer to Section 3 A Glimpse in the Scope of Buddhism in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Budddhist Door.


Mahisasakah  One of the Hinayana school, a branch of Sarvastivadah founded 300 years after the Nirvana, but the doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the Mahasanghika. Literally means a ruler who converted or rectified his land or people. The school denied reality to past and future, but maintained the reality of the present. Similarly, the school rejected the doctrine of the void and the non-ego, the production of taint by the Five consciousness, the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on. They held that enlightenment came suddenly rathern than gradually.


Maitreya  Sanskrit word, literally means friendly and benevolent. He will be the next Buddha in our world. He is now preaching in Tusita Heaven. He is usually represented as the fat laughing Buddha.


Mandala  A diagrammatic circular picture used as an aid in meditation or ritual, sometimes a symbol of the universe, or a representation of a deed of merit. Sometimes, it represents a place of enlightenment, where Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are existent. Mandalas also reveal the direct retribution of each of the ten worlds of beings (see Ten Realms). Each world has its mandala which represents the originating principle that brings it to completion. It is one of the three mystics in Tantric Buddhism.


Manjusri Bodhisattva  As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the greatest wisdom. Manjusri is said to have: wonderful head, universal head, glossy head, revered head, wonderful virtue and wonderfully auspicious. Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is often placed on the left of Shakyamuni, while Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is on the right. Manjusri always rides on a lion. He is described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Shakyamuni. In the past lives, he is also described as being the parent of many Buddhas and have assisted the Buddha into existence. He is the Chief of the Bodhisattva, and the chief disciple of the Buddha. He is the object for the pilgrimages visiting the Wu Tai Shan of Shansi Province in China.


Mantra  Sanskrit words signifying a sacred word, verse or syllable which embodies in sound of some specific deity or supernatural power. It is one of the three mystics in Tantric Buddhism.


Mara  Literally, “murderer”. The Evil One who “takes” away the wisdom-life of all living beings.


Mark  Lakana in Sanskrit word. It is a notion of form. In Diamond Sutra, it says “All with marks is empty and false. If you can see all marks as no marks then you see the Tathagata.” See also Four Marks.


Matter  Or Form or Thing. The Sanskrit word is Rupa. It is defined as that which has resistence, or which changes and disappear, i.e., the phenomenal. There are inner and outer forms representing the organs and objects of sense respectively.
Rupa is one of the Six Bahya-ayatanna or Six Gunas and also one of the Five Skandhas.


Maudgalyayana  See Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni.


Meditation  The fifth Paramita. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. See also Contemplation.


Middle Path  See Middle Way.


Middle Way  It denotes the mean between two extremes, particularly between realism and nihilism, eternal substantial existence and annihilation. This doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence in the interest of a middle way. This is the utlimate truth of Buddhism, and the reality character of all Buddha. See also Eight Negations.


Migadaya  See Deer Park.


Morality  The second Paramita, to take precepts and to keep the moral laws.


Mrgadava  See Deer Park.


Mudra  One of the three mystics in Tantric Buddhism, which is the symbolic gesture of hand fingers.


Mulasarvastivada  It was a branch of the Sarvastivadin sect, which asserted the doctrine of the reality of things. It held that all is produced by causative action, and everything is dynamic, not static. Mulasavastivada is a school of reality of all phenomena, one of the early Hinayana sects, said to have been formed, about 300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. Later it subdivided into five:


  • Mulasarvastivadah
  • Dharmaguptah
  • Kasyapiyah
  • Mahisasakah
  • Vatsiputriyah (most influential)

Nagarjuna  A Bodhisattva in South India, born into a Brahman family about 800 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni, i.e., 200 AD. He was the founder of Madhyamika (Middle Way) and Sunya (emptiness). He had plenty of writings in Buddhism. He was one of the chief philosophers of Mahayana Buddhism.


Nataputta  The founder of Jain religion, i.e. Jainism.


Nayutas  A Sanskrit word interpreted as a numeral, 100,000 or one million or ten million.


Nine Realms  The nine realms of error, or subjection to passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm. The nine realms are

  • the hell,
  • the hungry ghost,
  • the animal,
  • the man,
  • the Asura,
  • the gods,
  • the Arhat (sound hearer),
  • the Arhat (enlightened to condition), and
  • the Bodhisattra.


Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers  Or Nine Grades, Classes of Lotus Flowers, i.e. upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, upper medium, middle medium, lower medium, upper inferior, middle inferior and lower inferior, which represent ninefold future life into Pure Land. The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one’s distance from Amitabha, the consequent aeons that are required to approach Amitabha, and whether one’s lotus will open early or late.


Nirvana  Nirvana is a Sanskrit word which is originally translated as “perfect stillness”. It has many other meanings, such as liberation, eternal bliss, tranquil extinction, extinction of individual existence, unconditioned, no rebirth, calm joy, etc. It is usually described as transmigration to “extinction”, but the meaning given to “extinction” varies.

There are four kinds of Nirvana:

  1. Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature
  2. Nirvana with residue
  3. Nirvana without residue
  4. Nirvana of no dwelling


Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature 
It is commonly possessed by all individual sentient beings. It is not subject to birth and death, nor increase and decrease.
Nirvana with residue 
The cause, but not all the effect (Karma) of reincarnation is cut off and removal of the obstacle of affliction, but not that of what is known (Dharma), thus the body which remains is subject to birth and death. Those beings are Arhats.
Nirvana without residue 
Both the cause and effect of reincarnation are extinguished, both afflictions and what is known (Dharma) are extinguished. All kinds of suffering are externally in stillness. There is no further residue. Those beings are Bodhisattva.
Nirvana of no dwelling 
With the aid of interactive wisdom and compassion, those who do not dwell in birth and death, nor in Nirvana, but continue to cross living beings over forever.


No Strife Samadhi  Strife means debating and fighting. It is a kind of Samadhi, i.e. right concentration/meditation. To cultivate and attain this Samadhi, one will not argue or angry with others as one has no differentiation between self and others.

Om  The most simple, yet sacred mantra in Buddhism, also used in other Indian religions.


One Buddha Vehicle  Also known as Supreme Vehicle. In Buddhism, the Five Vehicles are established to facilitate us to understand the reality of Buddhahood. The teachings of One Buddha Vehicle is the ultimate, perfect and complete truth of Buddha, which is unconceivable and beyond words, as stated in the Lotus Sutra.

Pali  The language of the Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhist Canon, alleged to be the language used by the Buddha.


Paramita  It means to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore which is the Nirvana.

The Six Paramita or means of so doings are
(1) dana – charity/giving
(2) sila – moral/conduct/taking precepts
(3) ksanti – patience
(4) virya – vigor/devotion/energy
(5) dhyana – contemplation/meditation
(6) prajna – wisdom.

The Ten Paramita are the above plus
(7) upaya – use of expedient or proper means
(8) pranidhana – vow of bodhi and helpfulness
(9) bala – strength
(10) intelligence

Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of

  • charity/almsgiving,
  • morality,
  • renunciation,
  • wisdom,
  • energy/effort,
  • patience,
  • truth,
  • resolution/determination,
  • kindness/universal love and
  • resignation/equanimity.

Each of the ten is divided into ordinary, superior and unlimited perfection, making up to thirty in total.

Parinirvana  Not death, but perfect rest, i.e. the perfection of all virtues and the elimination of all evils.. Also a release from the suffering of transmigration and an entry to a state of fullest joy.


Patience  Endurance, the third Paramita. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, both in mundane and spiritual things. Patience refers to bearing insult and distress without resentment.


Pratyeka-Buddha  The second stage in Hinayana, the first or initial being that of Sravaka. He is enlightened to the conditions, i.e. the Law of Dependent Origination. He seeks enlightenment for himself and understands deeply Nidanas. He attains his enlightenment alone, independently, or a teacher, and with the object of attaining Nirvana and his own salvation rather than that of others.


Prajna  There are three kinds of Prajna:
(1) Prajna of languages
(2) Prajna of contemplative illumination
(3) prajna of the characteristics of actuality

The last one is the ultimate wisdom, which is the wisdom of Buddha. Also see wisdom.


Prajnativadinah  One of the Hinayana School, a branch of the Mahasanghikah, which held the view that there was a distinction between mere concepts and real entities (referred to in Buddha’s teaching) i.e. phenomenality and reality, based on Prajatisastra.


Pure Land  Generally refers to the Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitabha. Also known as the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Other Buddhas have their own Pure Lands, all of which are the adornment of merits and virtues in moral or spiritual cultivation. The Pure-Land Sect whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitabha; it is the popular cult in China and Japan.


Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss  This is the Buddha Land of Amitabha Buddha. In Amitabha Sutra, there is full description about this Pure Land. This is the world of utmost joy without suffering. With the spiritual power of Amitabha Buddha, all beings in this world will understand Buddhism easily and practise diligently, and attain enlightenment eventually. Therefore by reciting Amitabha Buddha’s name, Buddhist followers hope that they will be born in this Pure Land after their lives on earth. See also Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers.


Pure Land of Vairocana  The Lotus world, also the Pure Land of all Buddhas in their Sambhogakaya or Reward Body/Enjoyment Body. Above the wind or air circle is a sea of fragrant water, in which is the thousand-pedal lotus with its infinite variety of worlds. Hence, the meaning is the Lotus which contains a store of myriads of worlds.

Rahula  He was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni. He was the first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the Law. He was also the son of Shakyamuni.


Rajagaha  Rajagaha in Pali, Rajagrha in Sanskrit. The capital of the ancient kingdom of Magadha in India, which was the centres of culture at the time of Shakyamuni. The first Bodhi mandala of Buddhism called Bamboo Grove Park was built by the elder Kalanda and King Bimblisara of Magadha in Rajagaha.


Raksa  Living in the Ghost Path. Like Yaksa, they are evil and violent, but inferior to Yaksa.


Realm of Form  See Three Realms.


Realm of Formlessness  See Three Realms.


Realm of Sensuous Desire  See Three Realms.


Recognition  Or Conception or Thinking. The Sanskirt word is Sanjna. It is the function of mind. It may lead to desire. One of the Five Skandhas.


Renunciation  One of the Four Unlimited Mind. As one of the chief Buddhist virtues, renunciation leads to a state of “undifferent without pleasure or pain”. It is also an equality in mind with no distinction of self and others.


Right Action  The fourth of the Eightfold Path; respect for life (do not kill), property (do not steal) and personal relationship (no sexual misconduct) so as to purify one’s mind and body.


Right Concentration  Right abstraction, the eighth of the Eightfold Path; meditation, focusing the mind without distraction, preparing the mind to attain wisdom.


Right Effort  Right zeal or progress, unintermitting perseverance, suppressing the rising of evil states and stimulating good states, and to perfect those which have come to beings.


Right Livelihood  The fifth of the Eightfold Path; right life, abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. Five kinds of livelihood are discouraged : trading in animals for slaughter, dealing in weapons, dealing in slaves, dealing in poison and dealing in intoxicants.


Right Remembrance  Right memory, right mindfulness; the seventh of the Eightfold Path, avoiding distracted and clouded state of mind, awareness and self-possessed.


Right Speech  The third of Eightfold Path, abstaining from lying, slander/back biting, abuse/harsh words and idle talk.


Right Thought  Right thought and intent; avoiding desire and ill-will; the second of the Eightfold Path.


Right Understanding  See Right View.


Right View  Understanding the Four Noble Truths; the first of the Eightfold Path.


Rupa  See Matter or Five Skandhas.

Thuật ngữ Phật học Anh Hán
S – S

Saddharmapundarika Sutra  The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra in Sanskrit. “Sad” means wonderful, and “Pundarika” means white lotus flower.

Sagely Wheel-turning King  He is referred to a Buddha as universal spiritual king with all kinds of good marks and appearance, or a god over a universe, or a preacher of the supreme doctrine. The wheel is probably a symbol of the sun with its myraid rays.


Saha Land  Also called the Saha World. It refers to the land on Earth. Saha interprets as bearing and enduring. Saha Land is contrary to Pure Land. It is a place of good and evil. A universe where all are subjected to transmigration and in which a Buddha transforms.


Sakrdagamin  A Sanskrit word means one who returns once. It is the certification of the second fruit of Arhatship. Being a Sakrdagamin, he returns once – once to heaven and once among men before he cuts off the last three categories of his delusions in thought in the Desire Realm.


Samadhi  Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation.


Samana  A Pali word, Sramana in Sanskrit. One who practices austerities; an ascetic.


Samantabhadra Bodhisattva  Also called Visvabhadra Bodhisattva, Universally Worthy Bodhisattva. Being one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas, he is the Bodhisattva of Great Conduct, representing the Law. He has Ten Great King Vows, which are the guidelines in practising Buddhism, and cultivating the Buddhist Way.


Samhita  One of four types of Vedic literature in ancient India. It consists of four sections, including poems, songs, rituals, mandra, etc.


  1. Rg-veda     –   life & health;
  2. Sama-veda     –   ritual & worship;
  3. Yajur-veda     –   war study;
  4. Atharva-veda     –   mandra & poems.

The four is know as Four Vedas.


Sammatiyah  One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah. It is a school of correct measures, or correct evaluation, formed about 300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. It was classified in the Pudgalavadin category, thus often linked with Vatsiputriyah.


Samsara  Sanskrit word meaning turning of the wheel or revolving. It refers to the transmigration in the Six Directions of Reincarnation, the realm of birth and death.


Samskara  See Volition or Five Skandhas.


Sangha  The Buddhist monastic order. The corporate assembly of at least 3 monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution and ordain. In general terms, it refers to any community practising the Buddhist Way.


Sanjna  See Recognition or Five Skandhas.


Sankrantivada  See Sautrantika.


Sannagarikah  One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.


Sanskrit  Brahma letters. The classical Aryan language of ancient India, systematized by scholars. With the exception of a few ancient translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original texts in Buddhism used in China were Sanskrit.


Sariputra  Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali.   He was born in a Brahman family near Rajagaha. At the age of 17, he mastered all Vedic doctrines. In seeking a good teacher, he studied under one of the six great non-Buddhist teachers called Sanjaya. He met Shakyamuni with the aid of Assaji, one of the Five Bhiksus. He then became one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni, noted for his wisdom and learning. He was also the right-hand attendant on Shakyamuni. He died before Shakyamuni entered Nirvana. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is represented as standing with Maudgalyayana by the Buddha when entering Nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha.


Sarvastivadah  One of the early Hinayana sects, said to be formed about 200-300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. A branch of the Vaibhasika claiming Rahula as founder. A school of reality of all phenomena asserting the doctrine that all things are real.

The subdivision of Sarvastivadah was complicated and doubtful. In the list of the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into account to be one sect, as it split into all the remaining sects.

Also known as Hetavadinah.


Satyasiddhi School  One of the Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism. Founded on the Satyasiddhi Shastra by Harivarman.


Satyasiddhi Shastra  Written by Harivarman and translated by Kumarajiva, on which the Satyasiddhi Sect bases its doctrine. It was a Hinayana variation of the Sunya (emptiness) doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the Sutras.


Sautrantika  Sutravada in Sanskrit, Suttavada in Pali.   Libereally means reliance upon sutras, the original Buddhist texts, therefore emphasized the efficacy and authority of the sutras. Also called Sankrantivada as it held the view that the Skandhas transmigrate from the former world to the later world. It is one of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthaviradin developed from Sarvastivadah. Vasubandhu’s arguments in the Abhidharmakosa criticize the Vaibhasikas from a Sautrantika viewpoint. The ideas influenced Mahayana doctrines to form Yogacara school.


Savatthi  Savatthi in Pali, Sravasti in Sanskrit.   The capital of the ancient Kingdom of Kosala, where the famous monastery (Bodhimandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.


Seng-yu (445-518 A.D.)  He edited “the collection of Records concerning the Taipitaka”, which is the earliest extant collection of its kind. He was the follower of Mahayana Buddhism.


Sensation  Or Feeling. The Sanskrit word is Vedana. One of the Five Skandhas. See Five Skandhas.


Seven Gems  They are gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, mother-of-pearl, red pearls and carnelian.


Seven Title Classification  Sutra titles fall into seven classes accordingly to their reference to person, Dharma and analogy.


  1. Three Single
    1. Solely by reference to people
      e.g. the Amitabha Sutra
    2. Solely by reference to Dharma
      e.g. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra
    3. Solely by analogy
      e.g. The Brahma Net Sutra


  2. Three Paired
    1. By reference to a person and a Dharma
      e.g. The Sutra of the Questions of Manjushri
    2. By reference to a person and an analogy
      e.g. The Sutra of the Lion’s Roar of the Thus Come One
    3. By reference to a Dharma and an analogy.
      e.g. The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra.


  3. Three-in-one
    1. By reference to person, Dharma and analogy together
      e.g. The Great Universal Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra


Shakya  Sakiya in Pali and Sakya in Sanskrit. The tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged.


Shakyamuni  Sakayamuni in Sanskrit, Shakyamuni in Pali.   The founder of Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was called Siddhartha Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the called Shakyamuni. The word means “capability and kindness”.


Shatika Shastra  One of the Three Shastra of Madhyamika School, so called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words. It was written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and translated by Kumarajiva, but the versions differ.

Siddhartha  Siddhartha in Sanskrit, Siddhattha in Pali.   The given name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name means “wish fulfilled”.


Singalovada Sutra  A short sutra about ethics and morality.


Six Consciousness  They are the perceptions and the discriminative ability of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.


Six Directions of Reincarnation  (1) Naraka, i.e. Hell
(2) Presta, i.e. Hungry Ghost
(3) Tiryagyoni, i.e. Animal
(4) Asura, i.e. Malevolent nature spirits
(5) Manusya, i.e. Human Existence
(6) Deva, i.e. Heavenly Existence


Six Dusts  See Six Gunas.


Six Entrances  see Six Places and Six Indriyas.


Six External Bases  See Six Gunas.


Six Fields of Senses  See Six Gunas.


Six Fulfilment  The six requirements indicating that the Sutra is a true record of teachings given directly by the Buddha. They are the fulfilment of meeting the requirement

  1. on belief
  2. on hearing
  3. on time
  4. on of the host
  5. on place
  6. on audiences


Six Gunas  Or Six External Bases, or Six Dusts. They are sight, sound, scent/smell, taste, tangibles/touch and dharma/idea. They are the qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense.


Six Heavens of Desire  See Three Realms.


Six Indriyas  Or Six Internal Bases, or Six Sense-organs, or Six Places. They are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.


Six Internal Bases  See Six Indriyas.


Six Paramita  See Paramita.


Six Paths  See Six Directions of Reincarnation.


Six Periods of Day and Night  Six periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning, noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn.


Six Places  Sanskrit word is Sadayatana. See Six Indriyas.


Six Psychic Power  (1) the phychic power of the heavenly eye
(2) the psychic power of the heavenly ear
(3) phychic power with regard to post lives
(4) phychic power with regard to the minds
(5) the spiritually based psychic powers
(6) the psychic power of the extinction of outflows


Six Roots  Or Six Sense-organs, see Six Indriyas.


Six Sense-organs  See Six Indriyas.


Six States of Existence  See Six Directions of Reincarnation.


Sixteen Contemplations  See Vipasyana Sukhavativyha Sutra.


Sixteen Hearts  There are eight hearts within the Desire Realm:

  1. Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering
  2. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering
  3. Patience regarding the Dharma involving in Acculumation
  4. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Acculumation
  5. Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
  6. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
  7. Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Way
  8. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Way

Note that the Truths of Suffering, Acculumation, Extinction and Way are the Four Noble Truths, which is the fundamental doctrine in Buddhism, particularly Hinayana.

There are the other eight hearts within the Form Realm and the Formless Realm:

  1. Subsequent Patience regarding Suffering
  2. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Suffering
  3. Subsequent Patience regarding Acculumation
  4. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Acculumation
  5. Subsequent Patience regarding Extinction
  6. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Extinction
  7. Subsequent Patience regarding Way
  8. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Way


Sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception  The highest of the four heavens in the Realm of Formlessness, or called the sphere of no-thing.


Sphere of no-thing  The heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of the mind in contemplation, being four in number of which the “sphere of neither-perception-nor-nonperception” is the highest.


Spiritual Ghost  Living in the Ghost Path. They are kind dwelling in the nature, e.g. trees, mountain and sea protecting the creatures.


Sramanera  Literally, it means the one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy or lives altruistically. He is a devoted and zealous man who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments in Buddhist orders:


  1. not to kill.
  2. not to steal.
  3. not to lie or speak evil.
  4. not to have sexual misconduct.
  5. not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers.
  6. not to occupy high beds.
  7. not to sing or dance.
  8. not to possess wealth.
  9. not to eat out of regulation hours.
  10. not to drink wine.


Sramaneraka  Sramenera in female gender obeying the ten commandments of Sramanera too.


Sravaka  The first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second being that of Praetyka-Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word, means a hearer. It generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble Truth in entering Nirvana.


Srotaapanna  A Sanskrit word means one who has entered the flow, Sota-panna in Pali. He opposes the flow of common people’s six dusts and enters the flow of the Sage’s Dharma-nature.

It is the certification of the first fruit of Arhatship, which is within the Hinayana (small vehicle). It comes when the eighty-eight categories of delusions of view are smashed and cut off by means of sixteen hearts. It is called a Way of Liberation, for at that point, delusion is completely severed and liberation is obtained. One who has certified to Srotaapanna has seven more births and deaths to undergo. He will be born seven times in the heavens and seven times among men.


Sruti  The bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths originated from holy gods. They dictated the philosophical and religious thoughts in ancient India.


Sthavirah  Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah.   Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon):


  1. Mahaviharavasinah
  2. Jetavaniyah
  3. Abhayagiri-vasinah

In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects were developed.

From the time of Ashoka, four principal school are regarded as prevailing:


  1. Mahasanghika
  2. Sthavira
  3. Mulasarvastivada
  4. Sammatiyah

As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects reckoned.

The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agonostic system to a realist philosophy.


Sthaviranikaya  See Sthavirah.


Stupa  Sanskrit word means burial mound, which contains the ashes or relics of an enlightened being. In China, it appears as pagoda, representing the place where Buddha “lives”.


Subhadra  Subhadra in Sanskrit, Subhadda in Pali.   A Brahman of age 120, who became Shakyamuni’s disciple shortly before Shakyamuni’s death and is therefore known as the last disciple.


Sudatta  See Anathapindika.


Sudden Enlightenment  Enlightened all of a sudden by hearing or studying Dharma, usually for those who practices Ch’an.


Suddhodana  Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.


Sudra  Sudra in Sanskrit, Sudda in Pali. The lowest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and serfs.


Sukhavativyuha Sutra  It is one of the main Sutras for Pure Land Sect. It stipulates the Forty-eight Vows of Amitabha Buddha, which give rise to the characteristic of the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss in the West.


Sumeru  Sanskrit words. It means wonderful high mountain. It is composed of gold. silver, lapis lazuli and crystal, therefore it is so wonderful. It is eighty four thousand Yugamdhara high and eighty found thousand Yugamdhara wide, which is the greatest mountain amongst all.


Sutra  Sutra in Sanskrit, Sutta in Pali.   It is a “path” necessarily passed through in the cultivation of the Way.

Thuật ngữ Phật học Anh Hán
T – Z

Taking Precepts  see Morality.


Tantrayana  Also called Vajrayana. A school of esoteric Tibetan Buddhism. It emphsizes not only meditation but also the use of symbolic rites, gestures, postures, breathing, incantation, and other secret means.


Tao-an  He was one of the greatest masters in China (312-385 A.D.). He established the first native Sangha system with the monastic rules including the garments for the monks. He was the one who insisted all the ordained monks to change the surname to “Shih” ( ), the first syllable of the name of Buddha’s clan. He was also the first one who compiled the catalogues for all the translated Buddhist scripture by his time. His activities were important to the development of Chinese Buddhism.


Taoism  A religion developed from a Chinese mystic philosophy.


Ten Dharma Realms  also known as ten states of existence, which are

  1. Hell
  2. Ghost
  3. Animal
  4. Asura
  5. Man
  6. Deva
  7. Sravaka (Sound-Hearer Arhat)
  8. Praetyka-Buddha
  9. Bodhisattva
  10. Buddha

Each Dharma realm has its own characteristics, and its existence is attributed to the retribution of the beings. The lowest six realms (1-6) are known as the Six Paths or Six Realms. These six states of existence are subjected to birth and death, and then rebirth for many lives. The upper four realms are known as the Four Holy Realms. These four states of existence are beyond birth and death and liberated from the Samsara

For details, please refer to Part 2 of Buddhism In A Nutshell, which appeared in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Buddhist Door, March 1996.


Ten Directions  The eight points of the compass, in addition to the nadir and the zenith.


Ten Good Deeds  The Ten Forms of Good Actions for layman, or Ten Wholesomeness.

  1. No killing
  2. No stealing
  3. No adultery
  4. No lying
  5. No slandering
  6. No harsh speech
  7. No idle talks
  8. No greed
  9. No hatred
  10. No illusion

It is essential for the rebirth in Deva realm.


Ten Great Disciples of Skakyamuni Buddha  They are:


  1. Mahakasyapa in Sanskrit, Mahakassapa in Pali.     
    first in ascetism.
  2. Ananda     
    first in having heard the words of Buddha.
  3. Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali.     
    first in wisdom.
  4. Subhuti     
    first in expressing emptiness.
  5. Purna     
    first in explaining good law.
  6. Maudgalyayana in Sanskrit, Moggallana in Pali.     
    first in supernatural power.
  7. Katyayana     
    first in preaching.
  8. Aniruddha in Sanskrit, Anuruddha in Pali.     
    first in the sharpness of his divine eyes.
  9. Upali     
    first in taking precepts.
  10. Rahula     
    first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the law.


Ten Great King Vows  The vows of Visvabhadra Bodhisattva:

  1. To worship and respect all Buddhas.
  2. To praise the Thus Come One.
  3. To practise offerings.
  4. To repent all karmic hindrance.
  5. To rejoice and follow merits and virtue.
  6. To request that the Dharma wheel be turned.
  7. To request that the Buddha remain in the world.
  8. To follow the Buddha’s teachings.
  9. To live in accord with all living beings.
  10. To spread all merits and virtue.


Ten Meritorious Deeds  The Ten Meritorious Deeds allow people to gain a happy and peaceful life as well as to develop knowledge and understanding. They are:

  1. Charity
  2. Morality / Taking Precepts
  3. Mental cultivation / Meditation
  4. Reverence or respect
  5. Services in helping others
  6. Transference of merits
  7. Rejoicing in the merits of others
  8. Preaching and teaching Dharma
  9. Listening the Dharma
  10. Straightening one’s own views


Ten Offerings  For the material there are ten kinds of offerings in Buddhism:

  1. incense
  2. flower
  3. lamp
  4. necklace
  5. jeweled parasols
  6. banners and canopies
  7. clothes
  8. fruit and food
  9. music
  10. joined palms


Ten Paramita  see Paramita.


Ten Powers  The Ten Powers of Buddha or Bodhisattva are the complete knowledge of

  1. what is right or wrong in every condition
  2. what is the karma of every being, past, present and future
  3. all stages of dhyana liberation and samadhi
  4. the powers and faculties of all beings
  5. the desires or moral directions of every being
  6. the actual condition of every individual
  7. the direction and consequence of all laws
  8. all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality
  9. the end of all beings and Nirvana
  10. the destruction of all illusion of every kind


Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism 

  1. Kosa
  2. Satyasiddhi
  3. Madhyamika
  4. Tien Tai
  5. Hua Yen
  6. Dharmalaksana
  7. Vinaya
  8. Chan
  9. Esoteric
  10. Pure Land


Ten Stages of Bodhisattva  These are the ten stages of development of Bodhisattva depending on their merits and virtues:

  1. Pramudita (joy) – job at having overcome the difficulties and sufferings, now entering on the path to Buddhahood
  2. Vimala (purity) – freedom from all possible defilement
  3. Prabhakari (enlightenment) – stage of further enlightenment
  4. Arcismati (widsom) – stage of glowing wisdom
  5. Sudurjaya (no difficulty) – stage of mastering the utmost difficulties
  6. Abhimukhi (open way) – the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity
  7. Duramgama (proceeding afar) – getting above ideas of self in order to save others
  8. Acala (unperturbed) – attainment of being unperturbed
  9. Sadhumati (discriminatory wisdom) – the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessing the Ten Powers
  10. Dharma megha (law cloud) – attainment of the fertilizing powers of law cloud


Ten Titles of Buddha  represent the characteristics of Buddha

  1. Tathagata – the Thus Come Ones
  2. Arhat – worthy of offerings
  3. Samyak-sambuddha – of proper and universal knowledge
  4. Vidyacarna-sampauna – perfect in understanding and conduct
  5. Sugata – skilful in leaving the world through liberation
  6. Lokavid – perfect and complete understanding of all worldly Dharma
  7. Anuttara – unsurpassed knights
  8. Purusa-damya-sarathi – taming heroes
  9. Sasta deramanusyanam – teachers of gods and people
  10. Buddha-lokanatha or Bhagaran – Buddha, the World Honored Ones


Ten Vehicles of Meditation  Vehicles is the means to take living beings across from suffering to Nirvana. Though there are ten vehicles, there is only one teaching (Dharma), i.e., Inconceivable Virtues of the Self-mind, and the other nine are supplementary. According to Tien Tai Sect, the ten vehicles are:

  1. Meditation of Inconceivable Virtue of the Self-mind   –   highest order for superior roots
  2. Meditation of Real Bodhicitta
  3. Meditation of Expedient Dwelling of Mind
  4. Meditation of Breaking Universal Dharma
  5. Meditation of Penetrating through Obstructed Consciousness
  6. Meditation of Commissioning all Chapters of Paths
  7. Meditation of Confronting Delusion and Advocating Enlightenment
  8. Meditation of Understanding the Stages of Fruition
  9. Meditation of Calmness and Endurance
  10. Meditation of Non-attachment of Dharma


Ten Wholesomeness  see Ten Good Deeds.


Theravada  Thera, an elder; a fully ordained monk who has past ten rainy seasons. Theravada is the doctrine of the Theras, i.e. the teaching of Southern Buddhism. It is one of the traditional 18 sects of Hinayana Buddhism. This form of Buddhism emerged out of Mahinda’s mission to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) during Ashoka’s region. They are apparently very closely related to the orthodox Vibhajyavada doctrine of Ashoka’s time and represent the sole remaining Hinayanist sect today. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in S.E. Asian countries, e.g. Thailand, Sri Lanka, etc. (see Mahayana).


Thirty-two Forms  These are the physical marks of a Buddha

  1. Level feet
  2. thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet
  3. long slender fingers
  4. pliant hands and feet
  5. toes and fingers finely webbed
  6. full-sized heels
  7. arched insteps
  8. thigh like a royal stag
  9. hands reaching below the knees
  10. well-retracted male organ
  11. height and stretch of arms equal
  12. every hair-root dark coloured
  13. body hair graceful and curly
  14. golden-hued body
  15. a ten-foot halo around him
  16. soft smooth skin
  17. two soles, two palms, two shoulders and crown well rounded
  18. below the armpits well-filled
  19. lion-shaped body
  20. erect
  21. full shoulders
  22. forty teeth
  23. teeth white even and close
  24. the four canine teeth pure white
  25. lion-jawed
  26. salvia improving the taste of all food
  27. tongue long and broad
  28. voice deep and resonant
  29. eye deep blue
  30. eye lashes like a royal bull
  31. a white urna or curl between the eyebrows emitting light
  32. an usnisa or fleshy protuberance on the crown.


Three Classifications  Buddha shows that a person is nothing more than a combination of various elements which come together under suitable conditions. They are

  1. the Five Skandhas
  2. the Twelve Bases
  3. the Eighteen Fields


Three Delusions  In Tien Tai, three doubts in the mind of Bodhisattva, producing three delusions, i.e.,

  1. through things seen and thought 
  2. through the immense variety of duties in saving humans 
  3. through ignorance 


Three Dogmas  They are the Dogma of VoidUnreal and Mean. See also Three Meditations of One Mind.


Three Enlightenments  the three kinds of Enlightenment:

  1. Enlightenment for self
  2. Enlightenment for others
  3. Perfect enlightenment and accomplishment

The first is Arhat. The second is Bodhisattva. When all the three have been attained, the being becomes a Buddha.


Three Evil Paths  They are the three lowest realms of the Nine Realms: hell, hungry ghost and animal.


Three Good Paths  They are Man, Asura and Deva Paths.


Three Jewels  Or the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, which are the three essential components of Buddhism. They are the objects of veneration. Buddhists take refuge in them by pronouncing the threefold refuge formula, thus acknowledging themselves to be Buddhists.


Three Meditations of One Mind  Also known as Three Inconceivable Meditations, which is one of the practices in Tien Tai Sect in China. According to Tien Tai, all existence in the universe consists of Three Dogmas (Truths), namely, VoidUnreal and Mean. These three Dogmas are co-existent and interactive, integrated and interrelated. If one can meditate this concept with the whole mind, it is call Three Meditations of One mind, or Inconceivable Profound Meditation.


Three Obstacles  See Three Obstructions.


Three Obstructions  Also called Three Obstacles. They are the obstructions that hinder the attainment of Buddhahood. When the Three Obstructions are cleared, the Three Virtues will be perfected. The Three Obstructions are:


  1. Affliction obstruction   –   e.g. due to Three Poisons, i.e. greed, hatred and stupidity.
  2. Karma obstruction   –   e.g. due to Five Offenses, and Ten Unwholesome Deeds, i.e. the Karma in the past.
  3. Retribution obstruction   –   e.g. the suffering retribution in Three Evil Paths.


Three Periods of Time  That is the past, the present and the future.


Three Poisons  or Three Roots

  1. Greed or wrong desire
  2. Hatred or anger
  3. Illusion or stupidity or ignorance

These are the source of all the passions and delusions.


Three Realms  Sanskrit word is Triloka. It is Buddhist metaphysical equivalence for the triple world of earth, atmosphere and heaven.

  1. Realm of Sensusous Desire (Sanskrit word is Kamadhatu) of sex and food. It includes the Six Heavens of Desire, the Human World and the Hells.
  2. Realm of Form (Sanskrit word is Rupaadhatu) of matter which is substantial and resistant. It is a semi-material conception. It is above the lust world and contains bodies, places and things, all mystic and wonderful. It consists of 18 heavens, including the Heavens of Four Zen (Sanskrit word is Brahmalokas).
  3. Realm of Formlessness (Sanskrit word is Arupadhatu) of pure spirit, where there are no bodies and matters to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived of in Four Stages/Places of Emptiness in the immaterial world. It has four heavens, in which the Sphere/heaven of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is the highest.


Three Roots  The three (evil) roots, i.e. desire, hate and stupidity. Another group is the three grades of good “roots” or abilities, i.e. superior, medium and inferior.


Three Seals  Also known as Three Universal Truths.

  1. All phenomena are impermanent.
  2. All Dharma are not-self.
  3. The eternity is Nirvana.

It is called the seal because it is to certify whether it is the Buddha’s teaching or not. Also see Four Seals.


Three Shastra  They are

  1. Madhyamaka Shastra
  2. Dvadashamukha Shastra
  3. Shatika Shastra

All three were translated by Kumarajiva, on which the Three Shastra Sect bases its doctrines.


Three Studies  or Three Vehicles of Learning

  1. Sila, i.e. taking Precepts
  2. Dhyana, i.e. concentration and meditation
  3. Prajna, i.e. wisdom

It is practiced by the Arhats.


Three Sufferings 

  1. Feeling of suffering
  2. Feeling of happiness – suffering of decay
  3. Feeling of neither suffering nor happiness – suffering of the activity of the Five Skandhas.


Three Universal Characteristics  The Three Universal Characteristics are connected with the existence. They are:

  1. All phenomena are impermanent.
  2. All Dharma are not-self.
  3. All sensations are suffering.


Three Universal Truths  Also known as the Three Seals. Three Universal Truths are the basic teaching of Buddha, so that they are commonly used to attest Buddhism.

The Three Universal Truths are:

  1. All phenomena are impermanent, (i.e., Anicca in Sanskrit).
  2. All dharmas are non-self, (i.e., Anatta in Sanskrit).
  3. The eternity is Nirvana and stillness.


Three Vehicles  They are the Two Vehicles, plus the Bodhisattva Vehicle, i.e. the Vehicles for Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha, and the Bodhisattva are called the Three Vehicles.


Three Virtues  The three virtues of power,

  1. the virtue, or potency of the Buddha’s eternal, spiritual body, i.e., the Dharmakaya 
  2. the virtue of his Prajna, knowing all things in their reality 
  3. the virtue of his freedom from all attachments and his sovereign liberty 


Three Wisdom  There are three kinds of wisdom:

  1. Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha knowledge that all the Dharmas or laws are void and unreal 
  2. Bodhisattva knowledge of all things in proper discrimination 
  3. Buddha knowledge or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present and future. 

In Tien Tai Sect, the Three Wisdom is associated with the Three Dogmas of Void, Unreal and Mean.


Threefold Body of a Buddha  They are

  1. Dharma body, i.e. Dharmakaya – its own essential nature, common to all Buddhas.
  2. Retribution body, i.e. Sambhogakaya – a body of bliss, which he receives for his own use and enjoyment.
  3. Response and transformation body, i.e. Nirmanatkaya – he can appear in any form whenever and wherever necessary for the sake of crossing over others.


Tien Tai Sect  One of the Ten Great Sect in Chinese Buddhism. It was initiated by Hui Man in the dynasty of Bei-Chai, and was promoted by Chi-Hai in Tsui Dynasty. Mainly based on Lotus Sutra, Tien Tai Sect explains all universal phenomena with Three Dogmas. For the practices, it emphasizes cutting off Three Delusions, thus establishes the method of Three Meditations of One Mind.

Triloka  see Three Realms.


Trinity of Western Paradise  They are the Buddhas and the Great Bodhisattvas in Western Paradise (Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss):

  1. Amitabha
  2. Avalokitesvara (Kuan Yin)
  3. Mahasthamaprapta


Tripitaka  Tripitaka in Sanskrit, Tipitaka in Pali.   The three parts of Pali canon, consisting of:

  1. Sutra-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Sutta-Pitaka (Pali), or the Sutra Basket – containing the entire , the sermons attributed to the Shakyamuni Buddha.
  2. Vinaya-Pitika (both Sanskrit and Pali), or the Ordinance Basket – containing the rules of monastic life.
  3. Abhidharma-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma-Pitaka (Pali), or Shastras, or the Treatise Basket – containing the doctrinal commentaries, philosophical and technical works, such as discourses, discussions, or treatises on the dogma, doctrines, etc.


True Suchness  Bhutatathata in Sanskrit word. Bhuta means substance that exists; tathata means suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. It is regarded as the absolute, ultimate source and character of all phenomena. It is the eternal, imperson, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. Simply speaking, it is ALL.

There are many other terms to describe it, e.g. Buddha-nature, Self-nature Pure Mind, Dharmakaya (Dharma Body), Tathagata-garbha (Buddha-treasury), Reality (real mark), Dharma Realm, Dharma Nature, the Complete and Perfect real nature, etc.


Tusita Heaven  The fourth devaloka in the Realm of Desire. Its inner department is the Pure Land of Maitreya who like Shakyamuni and all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next Buddha in our world.


Twelve Bases  The Six Internal Bases and the Six External Bases are together called the Twelve Bases. Base implies the meaning of germinating and nourishing. All mental activities are germinated and nourished from these Twelve Bases.


Twelve Links of Dependent Origination  see the Law of Dependent Origination.


Twelve Nidanas  see the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.


Twelve Places  see the Twelve Bases.


Twenty Sects of Hinayana  See the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, plus the two originals, i.e. Mahasanghikah and Sthavirah called the Twenty Sects of Hinayana.


Two Deaths  Two Deaths refer to

  1. share-sectioned birth and death
  2. changed birth and death


Two Forms of Death 

  1. Natural death of the life
  2. Death form external cause and conditions


Two Obstacles  Two Obstacles refer to

  1. the obstacle of afflictions
  2. the obstacle of what is known


Two Sects of Hinayana  It refers to the Sthaviravadin and Mahasanghika.


Two Vehicles  Two Vehicles generally refer to Sravaka and Praetykabuddha.

Uddaka-Ramaputta  Uddaka-ramaputta in Pali, Udraka-Ramaputra in Sanskrit. A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state reached by Uddaka-Ramaputta was that at which neither thought nor non-thought exists.


Udumbara Flower  Udumbara flower blooms once every three thousand years, so it is rare and wonderful. It is used to describe how rare the occasion is.


Unconditioned dharma  Also known as Asamskrta dharma, which is anything not subject to the principle of cause and effect, nor law of dependent origination, i.e. conditions. It is the dharma beyond the worldly ones.


Upanichads  One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India, which are basically Brahmanic philosophical texts. It is a sophisticated exposition of Indian philosophy and metaphysics about man and universe.


Uruvela  A town in Magadha where Shakyamuni attained his enlightenment and Buddhahood in the woods along Nairanjana river.


Uttarasailah  One of the Hinayana School, a branch of Mahasanghika. It was established in the third century, after the Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of Jetavana.

Vaibhasika  A Hinayana school of the reality of all phenomena.

It is said that there were four branches of the Vaibhasika school, so called after the Vaibhasika Shastra.


  1. Sthavirah
  2. Sarvastivadah
  3. Vatsiputriyah
  4. Mahasanghika

The school adhered primarily to two Sarvastivadin texts, the Jnanaprasthana and Abhidharmavibbasa-shastra.


Vaisya  Vaisya in Sanskrit, Vaishya in Pali.   The third of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.


Vajrayana  Also called Tantrayana.


Vast and Long Tongue  one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the “marvels” in the Lotus Sutra.


Vasubandhu  Buddhist philosopher of 500 A.D. The 21st Buddhist patriach of Mahayana Buddhism. He was great Buddhist commentator in Hinayana, but was converted to Yogacara by his brother Asanga.


Vatsiputriyas  Vatsiputriyas in Sanskrit, Vajjiputtakas in Pali.   Hinayanist sect often linked with Sammatiyah, which broke from the orothodox Sarvastivada. The founder was Vatsa. They may be classified as Pudgalavadins, accepting the pudgala transmigrated, and rejecting the theory of the Five Skandhas (the Five Aggregates comprising personality). They were considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the self. That individual self is neither the same nor different from the Five Skandhas. The doctrine challenged the Dharma exposition by the Sarvastivadah. The school was later dividied into four:


  • Dharmottariyah
  • Bhadrayaniyah
  • Sammatiyah
  • Sannagarikah


Vedana  see Sensation or Five Skandhas.


Vedas  Literally, it means knowledge. They are basic scriptures of Hinduism in India, composed between 2000 and 500 B.C. They consist of Rg-veda, Sama-veda, Yajur-veda and Atharva-veda. The collection is also known as the Vedic Samhita. Apart from Samhita, the Vedic literature regarded as Sruti were Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisads.


Vibhajyavada  Literally means Distinctionist or Holders of the Doctrine of Distinctions. A sect of Ashoka’s Council at Pataliputra (i.e. the Third Council). They were called as they made a distinction of phenomena in time into two categories; those that exist and those that do no.

The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this sect, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is said that this school was established to harmonize the difference between the Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was the definite work of this school, thus they gained supremacy over the Sarvastivadins in the Third Council.


Vigor  the fourth Paramita, pure and unadulterated progress, i.e. zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the evil.


Vimalakirti-Nivdesa Sutra  Vimalakirti, a Sanskrit word, means undefiled and pure reputation. Vimalakirti was said to be a native of Vaisali, and an upasaka (not a monk) to assist Shakyamuni to preach and cross over the human beings. The Sutra is the record of interesting conversation between Vimalakirti and Manjusri Bodhisattva regarding the understanding of One Buddha Vehicle.


Vinaya School  Emphasizes the monastic discipline founded by Tao Hsuan of the Tang Dynasty in China.


Vipasyana Sukhavativyuha Sutra  It is one of the main sutra for Pure Land Sect. The Sutra indicates that the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha is one of the Buddha Lands. It also describes how to be born in the Pure Land through the Sixteen Contemplations. Therefore, the Sutra is also called “Sixteen Contemplations Sutra”.


Visvabhadra Bodhisattva  As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the highest conduct. Visvabhadra, also known as Samantabhadra, means universal worthy. He is the lord of the fundamental law, the dhyana ( taking precepts) and the practice of all Buddhas. Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is often placed on the right of Shakyamuni, while Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is the left. He always rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sutra, and its devotees, and has close connection with Hua-yen Sutra. He has Ten Great King Vows, which give an excellent guideline to all Buddhists to practice and cultivate the Buddha Way.


Volition  or mental formation, or action, or conduct, or deed, usually done through the body, mouth or mind. The Sanskrit word is Samskara.

Way  Generally, it refers to the Way of Bodhi or enlightenment leading to Nirvana through spiritual stages, and even to Buddhahood through Bodhisattva’s practices. Sometimes, it is also called the Path, the Road, the Truth, the Reason, the Logos, Cosmic Energy, etc., depending on different circumstances.


Wheel of Law  The Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place and age to age. To turn the wheel means to preach Buddha-truth.


Wheel-rolling King  Cakkavatti-raja in Pali, Cakravarti-raja in Sanskrit.   Also known as Sagely Wheel-turning King. There are four such kings, each with a precious wheel of gold, silver, copper, and iron. The kings reign over the four areas in north, south, east and west. It is believed that the Gold-Wheel King is to come in perfection and unify the world. In Indian mythology, he is the ideal ruler.


Wisdom  the highest of Paramita; the virtue of wisdom as the principal means of attaining Nirvana. It connotes a knowledge of the illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice and heresy.


World Honoured One  One of the titles of the Buddha. In Sutras, this is the respected title of Shakyamuni Buddha. See also Ten Titles of Buddha.

Yaksa The demons in the lower realm, like the Ghost Realm. They are evil, malignant and violent. They live on earth or in air.


Yana  a Sanskrit word means vehicle. A term applied to Buddhism as a means by which a practitioner cultivates on the path to enlightenment. The different vehicles correspond to views of spiritual path, that differ as to the basic attitude of the practitioner and the means of making progress on the way. There are categories of one, two, three and five vehicles.


Yasodhara  the wife of Siddhartha Goutama. She later became a Bhikhuni.



See Dharmalaksana School.

Zeal  see Vigor.


Zen  also called Chan; see Contemplation and Meditation.


Phật lịch: 2565   Nông lịch: Nhâm Dần   Việt lịch: 4901   Dương lịch: 2022

“Mừng xuân hỷ xả thêm công đức
Đón Tết từ bi bớt não phiền”

Xuân tết là ngày quan trọng và thân thiết đối với mọi người, dù người đó đang ở đâu, trong hoàn cảnh nào. Kỳ gian xuân tết mỗi nơi mỗi khác, nhưng hễ mỗi lần xuân tết là báo hiệu ngày mở đầu năm mới, người người đều cảm thấy nơi lòng sống dậy niềm hy vọng sẽ được hạnh phúc sáng sủa và may mắn tốt lành hơn năm cũ.

Xuân mang ý nghĩa tăng trưởng nguồn sống cho vạn loại sanh linh. Xuân mang lại nguồn sống của vạn vật đâm chồi nẩy lộc tốt tươi như thế nào, thì ngày đầu năm xuân tết người ta cũng vui vẻ chúc cho nhau những điều lành tốt như thế ấy.  Trong những ngày xuân tết, người ta hết sức kiêng cữ lời nói, cố tránh việc làm không hay đẹp. Người ta thường trao tặng cho nhau những món quà xinh tốt với nụ cười lời chúc “hạnh phúc, may mắn, tăng thọ, phát tài, phát lợi, bình an.”

Trước thềm Xuân Nhâm Dần, năm Phật lịch 2565, Việt lịch 4901, chúng con thành tâm kính chúc Chư vị Tôn túc, Hòa thượng, Thượng tọa, Ni trưởng, Ni sư, Đại đức tăng, ni, pháp thể khinh an, chúng sinh dị độ, đạo quả viên thành.

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